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1. If any of the assumptions underlying the *t *test are violated to a modest extent,

2. Descriptive research can focus on depicting

3. A casual-comparative design seeks to find relationships between independent and dependent variables

4. Analysis of covariance is the preferred test rather than analysis of variance when

5. A nonparametric test of significance should be considered whenever

6. Use of the *t *test for a single mean requires

7. A descriptive research study would be likely to report all but which of the following types of scores or

statistics?

8. In causal-comparative research, matching is used to

9. Which statistical test is considered a parametric test?

10. Longitudinal research designs are particularly useful for studying

11. If a researcher studies the same population over time by repeatedly contacting the same sample of

individuals, the researcher is conducting a _________ study.

12. In conducting a MANOVA on a cluster of five related variables, a researcher obtains an *F *value that is significant at the .01 level. What is the next step that should be taken in analyzing the data?

13. Chi-square should be used when data are in the form of

14. The Mann-Whitney *U *test, the Wilcoxon signed rank test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test

15. The best way to select two groups for comparison in a causal-comparative research study so that they are highly different on the presumed causal variable is

16. Compared to parametric statistics, nonparametric statistics

17. Compared with a longitudinal study, an important advantage of a cross-sectional study is that

18. After the researchers have selected a group having the characteristic they wish to study in a causal comparative design, the next logical step is to

19. Analysis of variance focuses on the

20. The t-statistic is computed to determine

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