Answer three of the following sets of questions. Be sure to write complete sentences, double space, set one-inch margins, and use Times Roman 12-point font. Aim for one to one-and-a half pages for each of your answers. You will note that some of the questions ask you to form opinions on the subject. Do not be intimidated by that.
1. Identify and explain two important effects of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. Should the French Revolution be viewed as a success or a failure? Was Napoleon’s reign largely beneficial or chiefly disastrous for France?
2. Define conservatism, liberalism, and radicalism in the context of the 19th century. Which of these political outlooks was the most successful, and which one seems most attractive to you? Explain your answer. How have they changed over time (that is, up to the present)?
3. Why did the revolutions of 1848 fail to have the outcomes that those who rebelled wanted to achieve? Did the revolutions have any positive outcomes?
4. Why were the 19th-century unifications of Italy and Germany important events? Evaluate Otto von Bismarck as a political leader/statesman. What were the consequences of the methods by which he achieved German unification?
5. Why was Great Britain the first country to industrialize, and why did it have about a fifty-year head start on other countries in creating an industrial capitalist economy? Explain your view of the beneficial and detrimental aspects of living in a modern industrial society.
6. Why did socialism develop into such a strong challenge to laissez faire economics (capitalism)? Why did Karl Marx’s critique of capitalism become so influential after his death?