Wildlife trafficking is a major global challenge, where it also includes poachingand other taking of protected or managedspecies. Illegal trafficking has escalated to an international crisis. This challenge is a critical conservation concern and a major threat to global security, with significantnationalinterests. As much as there are other threats to wildlifeand plant species, such as climate change, pollution,and destruction of natural habits, wildlife trafficking is still one of the criticalproblems and threats facing wildlife. It includes poaching, harvesting,and depleting significant quantities of alreadyendangered or at-risk species.
Wildlife trafficking has far-reaching implications, which are not only to the involved species but also to the lives of humans, biodiversity, andgovernance. The consequences that wildlife trafficking has meanta need to have a comprehensiveapproach, including poverty eradication, food security, sustainable development, conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, economic growth, social wellbeing, and sustainable development livelihoods(Haenlein, Maguire, & Somerville, 2017). There have been multiple incidences in which involve wildlife trafficking across the globe. An example of a most recent case is August 2020, where federalauthoritiescharged a dozen individuals who were found illegal trafficking shark fins worth millions of dollars in Florida. It was also established that they did not want just trafficwildlife but were alsoinvolved in the trafficking of marijuana andlaunderedtheir ill-gotten gains into jewels, gold, and othercommodities. This proves that the wildlife trafficking business is integrated into many others, where criminals are involved in multiple types of illegal companies that are all interrelated(Heinrich, et al., 2020). As a result,of poaching band wildlife trafficking, thousands of animalspecies have becomeextinct globally. Some many issues and factors areassociated with wildlife trafficking. First, it manifests that this is abig business, which rakes in close to $23 billion annually, and the value can even be more extensive in the currentyears(Agu & Gore, 2020). Wildlifetrafficking is a significantthreat to the tens of thousands of speciesglobally, which has resulted in the extinction of animals such as the Western Black Rhino, numerous types of birds, lions and tigers, and even orchids. Wildlife trafficking is harmful to animals andhumans, where the persons involved in the trade have also been involved in murder, intimidation, bribery, terrorism,and organized crimes. All thesecrimesare interrelatedand lead to destabilizing families, communities, and a country’s national security.
Wildlife trafficking also happens in many forms, where the traffickersrequireparts such as meat, scales, horns,and many other features. Others are sold for the pet trade and alter consumption. In the process of transportinganimals from one area to another, very few survive the process(Miller, et al., 2019). In many cases, wildlife trading involves collateral damage, where for example,poachers of elephants may use poison to eliminate the nearby vultures. The latter would otherwisecircle the dead pachyderms and alert the authorities to the killsites(Haenlein & Smith, 2017). Therefore, it is apparent that this is a major global challenge that ought to be comprehensively addressed since it will help protect the animals and help prevent other related crimes such as illegal drugs and firearms trades, among other crimes.
Many scholarlyarticles and publicationshave been in place to elucidate the topic of wildlife trafficking,one of the major global problems. According to many of the articles, if nothing is dozen to deal with wildlife trafficking, then it is likely that many wild animals will get extinct in the coming years. According to (Viollaz, Graham, & Lantsman, 2018), the international community dramatically recognizespoachingand the destructiveimpacts of wildlife trafficking and other associated crimes(Heinrich, et al., 2020).This is since it has established that in most cases, corruption in many cases is to be blamed for the soaring cases of illegal trafficking of wildlife. The trade is a clear violation of laws in place, erodes the quality of life, distorts markets,and enables threats to human security. Nevertheless, according to (Arroyo-Quiroz & Wyatt, 2019)wildlife trafficking remains to be one of the leastdiscusseddimensions of corruption and particularly the illegal wildlife trade, which has become rampant in many nations across the globe. As a result of corruption,Criminalactivities such as wildlife trafficking have continued to be more successfuland raise a considerable amount of illegalmoney that the cartelsand some members of the government gain. Worldwide Illegal Wildlife trafficking is one of the most profitable formsof illicit trade, where it has managed to form a multi-billion-dollarindustrythattranscendsnational borders. The IWT has been estimated to be valued at $7–23 billion annually – part of a more comprehensive environmental crime industry valued at $91–258 billion(Wyatt, Johnson, Hunter, George, & Gunter, 2018). With the trade expanding by the day, it has becomemoresophisticated, where it involvesregular, transcontinentaltransfers of multi-ton consignments. It is currentlyreferred to as transnational organized crime since it involves extensive, strategicfacilitation by corruptentitieswithin the chain(Arroyo-Quiroz & Wyatt, 2019). Given the scope of this criminality, the failureofthe government to act againstcorruption has continued to enable wildlife trafficking, which ultimately will lead to the extinction of speciesthat are greatly endangered by the trade.
According to (Crayne & Haenlein, 2017) as a result of the wildlife trafficking, many developing countries are harmed and cannotachieve nations’poverty and development outcomes. Hence, this undermines the ability to engage in the nation’s agendas on sustainable development anddeprives countries of valuabletouristic resources. This is a result of the deployed natural species,which are arepresentationof the global public good. (Brown, 2017)States that result from wildlife trafficking and othercorruption deals by nations, the affected countries cannot attain their set sustainable development goals on combattingpoachingand the trafficking of protectedspecies. Illegaltradealso inhibits the sustainable developmentgoals of promotingpeacefuland inclusivesocieties for sustainabledevelopment.
According to (Miller, et al., 2019), illegal wildlife trafficking is the singlehugestthreat to theendangeredspecies. This is since any form of poaching or harvesting parts of an animal risks thespecies becoming extinct. To worsen the problem, when there isa higher demand for the larger and more attractive species, then thehunters tend to aim at the fittest individuals from the breeding population(Arroyo-Quiroz & Wyatt, 2019). This, as a result, has severe implications for subsequentgenerations. It is alsomanifest that more endangeredspecies are fragile, where they require expertand delicate handling. How the animals are caught, transported, and kept by the poachers in many cases tends to lead to injury, death, and attrition, which ultimately leads to further losses when the living animals are trafficked.
(Brown, 2017)also supports the many negative impacts of wildlife trafficking. He states that as a result of illegal trade, there have been numerous harm caused to the innocent animals by the illegal traders. According to the author, the unlawful transactions can lead to long-term ecological problems beyond endangering species, including sex ratio imbalancesand theslowing down of the reproductionrates of the vulnerablespecies(Haenlein, Maguire, & Somerville, 2017). An example is the genderimbalance of African elephants, where many males have been killed for their tusks. As aresult,populationrecovery among the elephants has been slowed down due to theaffectedreproduction rates(Wittig, 2017). Other animals, such as the Macaws, have very slow reproductionrates;hencetargeting them has reduced their population since there are very few macaws left to reproduce with. This depicts the impacts that the illicit trade has had on the wildlife and couldfurther in thefuturehavemore burdensomeconsequences on the population of these species.
Illegalwildlifetrafficking has also increased animal cruelty, where the methods used to kill or captureanimals are extremelycrueland fail to comply with the set animal welfare standards(Heinrich, et al., 2020). The transportationand concealmentmethods arealsoagainst the measuresleading to illness, injuries, starvation, or tense animals’ detachments when in transit. Trafficking live animalscan result in high fatality rates, more so whenthey are not stored or fed accordingly(Sollund R. , 2017). The traffickers do not observe the animal rights and ethical processesrequired of them , where the rights advocate against killing, using, or consuming wild animals(Sollund, 2019). From the studies, it is manifestthat there is a need for a more in-depth study on the subject matter where there is a need for establishingrecommendations that can lead to a sustainablesolutionthatwill help deal with theincreasingcases of illegal wildlife trafficking.
A review of major national and international laws/regulations designed to address the problem
Presently, preventing and suppressing illegal wildlife trafficking is not a priority in most countries across the globe. Despite the majornegativeimpactsandpotential scale of consequences, wildlife trafficking is often overlooked or even misunderstood by many. As much as there are multiple policies and laws, theirenforcement has not been very effective, primarily due to the changing levelsand patterns of trafficking. There are also poorlydeveloped legal frameworks, weak law enforcement, and untrustedjudicialpractices. This has a result led to more dangerand threat to the valuable wildlife and plant resources. There arealso multiple gaps in domestic and international control regimes , where it is difficult to identify illegal commodities and secondary products(Sollund, 2019). There arealso intricate trafficking routes that make it difficult to curtail the trade effectively. As much as many organizations, both internationaland non-governmental, have launched initiatives that aim to bring global attention to wildlife trafficking, political commitment,and operationalactivity to tackle this challenge. However, to date, there is no single universalframework that is in place to prevent and control wildlife trafficking crime.
There have been many international treaties and conventions that were in place to help deal with the threat of wildlife trafficking. In 2018, for example, the ASEAN-Wildlife Enforcement Network undertook alegal review of ASEAN countries’ respective legislation on wildlife crime(OECD, 2021). The review providesa comparatives framework of the analysis of relevant laws and their applications towards dealing with the illegal wildlife trade. There is also the convention on transnational crime, the principle international framework that deals with organized crimes across the borders. This legally binding document has various provisions that require the parties to integrate domestic criminaloffenses with international crimes. There arealso multiple protocols of theUNCTO, which focus on particular transnational crimes that include human trafficking, migrant smuggling,andillicitarms trafficking. However, there are no specific protocols that specifically deal with wildlife crime by the UN(OECD, 2021). Another act in place to deal with international wildlife trafficking is the UNCAC, which covers five key areas: preventative measures, criminalization and law enforcement, global cooperation, asset recovery, technical assistance, and information exchange.
A review of notable conservation measures implemented to address the problem and the outcome of these measures
Nations have undertaken multiple conservation measuresintending to prevent the causes of wildlife trafficking. The United States, for example,addresses the threat by enactingact such as the Eliminate, Neutralize, and Disrupt (END) Wildlife Trafficking Act of 2016 and the executive order of 2017 by the president, which enforces federallaws concerning the U.S. Presidential Executive Order on Enforcing Federal Laws concerning Transnational Criminal Organizations and Preventing International Trafficking(OECD, 2021). The END act was essentialfor the country in the fight against illegal wildlife trade. It aimed to strengthen law enforcement, reduce the demand for animals and their parts, andbuildinternationalcooperationand commitment. There has also been more collaboration between the USAID and other government agencies such as the justice and commerce departments. The bodies aim trio reduce opportunities and incentives for wildlife poachers, traffickers, and sellers through working together. In the financial year 2018, the USAID inversed more than $65 million, intending to address wildlife trafficking through activities in more than 35 nations across the globe(OECD, 2021). This was withcollaboration with some of the most affected countries regarding trafficking, including the Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, and Vietnam.
There have also been numerous campaigns and activitiesaimed at reducing consumer demand for animals and their parts. USAIDhas been in the spotlight leading in such activities. It aims to reduce the demand for wildlife and wildlife products, including focusing on consumers mainly in Southeast Asia and China, known to have the highestorders for such products. For example, in the Financial year 2018, the USAID leveraged around $4.3 million from private-sector partnerships. It also screened videos on 60,00 public screens, more than 1500 flights, and more than 500 buses(OECD, 2021). The online videos about the campaigns attracted more than 12 million views, which indicates the efforts made to raise awareness on the matter.
USAID has also beenat the forefront of fighting for an effective criminaljustice system in nationsto investigate and prosecutewild; life crime. The body has supported inter-agency collaboration, transboundary cooperation, and reforms to policies and practices to ensure that criminals are appropriatelypunished. The body haspartnered withcountriesand trained severallawenforcers, prosecutors, and judges to approach the matter. As aresult of the efforts, countries such as Malawi and Zambia in the financialyear 2018 could seize more than 3.65 tons of ivory and made 148 arrests. Efforts by the USAID to offerworkshops for 89 prosecutorsand magistrates on the new wildlife act saw an increase of the population of elephants by 50% since 2016 in the Malawi-Zambia Transboundary Landscape. However, despite the measures undertaken byboth the state and non-state agencies, the number of illegal wildlife trafficking has still been on the rise in this century(Haenlein, Maguire, & Somerville, 2017). This is a clearmanifestation that more ought to be done to ensure that sustainable solutions to the problem are identified and that the cases of trafficking are minimized. There is a need for more governmentcommitment, more enactmentandimplementation of laws, and more goodwill from the citizens to ensure that illegal wildlife trafficking is dealt with accordingly.
There is a need to develop effectivepolicies that will ensure that wildlife traffickingis completelyeradicatedglobally.This is to ensure that the future of wildlife is made atop priority. As apart of the policyrecommendation, the practitioners will need to develop sustainableapproaches that fight trafficking and corruption, which areremarkablyinterrelated. The policy first needs toimplementreforms and mechanisms that allow for meaningful improvements of institutional performance and control of corruption outcome. This is since, with a vital institution, thensome better practices and strategies can help in combatting the crimes. From this perspective, there will be the promotion of stronger performances in preventing the crimes sinceit will require the attention of working with and incentivizinganti-corruption. The approach also closely aligns with national priorities such as social welfare,economy , natural resource management , environment, space, andsecurity(Viollaz, Graham, & Lantsman, 2018). All these factors are vital in ensuring that a country’s wildlife is protected andsafe from the hands of poachers and traffickers.
As a part of the policy, there will be a need for encouraging alternative economic opportunities to the citizens. This willprimarily targetvulnerablegroups who will have other jobs to undertake. Hence, theywill not be an easy target by syndicates and cartels who use them as poachers and traffickers. From experiences provided by reformed poachers, it is manifest that if they are provided with alternative sources of income, they would be able to use the income-generatingactivities to keep them busy. This willdeter them from becoming involved in any activity that deals with wildlife trafficking.
As a part of the policy that will help combat wildlife trafficking, therewill be a need to addressstereotypes. This mainly involvesencouraging people on why it is essential to be the forefront runners in protecting the wildlife, where they will be shown the importance of wildlife to the society and theecosystem at large. Making peopleunderstand will help them understand why they should be involved more in conservation efforts rather than getting involved in the poachingand trafficking of wildlife(Haenlein, Maguire, & Somerville, 2017). Suchmessages could be potentially be reinforced through positive role models. They can be tailored to expose the ideal costs of wildlife trafficking and corruption, which hurtsindividualsand communities.
Such holistic approaches to the conservation of wildlife are vital in that theyhelp in tackling both supply and demand of wildlife products. Equally, in policyimplementation, it is crucial to spotlightthe poachers. Equally, the consumers of the wildlife products need to be warned against participating in such forms of trade where stringentpunishmentmeasures would be in place to ensure that they do not walk scot-free.
As apart of the approach, it isessential to focus on the punishment of the wrongdoers and focus on preventing the crimes. There is a need for programs that consider the drivers, facilitators,and functionality of participating in the acts of trafficking. As apart of the prevention program, thereis a need to allocate much more funds, which wil help ensure personnel at the game parks and conservation centers protect the wildlife againstpoachers. There is also a need to have excellentsecurity systems, such as electric fences, CCTV cameras,and other quality equipment that will spot poachers before gettinginvolved in any crime-related act.
However, these policies can not get implemented if thereisa lack of high levels of politicalsupport. This is since only through the legislaturecan an act be enacted, which can then be used for enforcement. Failure by the policymakers to collaborate in combating wildlife trafficking could mean that it will be impossible for nations to make stepsforwardgiven their crucial role of enactmentand legislation of the policies(Arroyo-Quiroz & Wyatt, 2019). There is also a need for regional and international cooperation,which can play a vital role in ensuring that international illegal trafficking is stopped. Notably, almost all wildlife trafficking cases are between nations and continents, where some countries are the sources of the productswhereas others are the market. Therefore through international collaborations, the syndicates can be stopped. However, this is only possible if thereis arobust multiagencycollaboration between nationsand law enforcement agencies.
The barriers to its implementation
There are multiplebarriers tothe implementation of the recommended policies. The firstsignificant barrier likely to derail the implementation is the lack of funding. Funding is vital in that it aids in establishing the right structures and ensures that the mandated personnel are reimbursedaccordingly. It is the role of t government to providefundingsince it plays acrucialrole in ensuring that conservation efforts are successful. Other non-statebodiescouldalso play a huge role in funding the campaignsand helping combat these crimes,which are likely to destroy the global ecology system. Lack of funding would negativelyaffect the efforts of ensuring that all the required measures are effectively implemented.
Lack of political goodwill is another significant barrier limiting the efforts of conservation and prevention of wildlife trafficking. Governments may fail to collaborate in the actions of dealing with trafficking. This can mainly be attributedto the fact that many senior governmentofficialsare a part of the cartels that deal with trafficking, hence showing minimal effort in the fight against traffickers(Wyatt, Johnson, Hunter, George, & Gunter, 2018). Governments are also expected to deal with social issues facing individuals, such as poverty. Failure to eradicate the problem leavescitizens with no option but to engage in illegal activitiesas the onlymeans of surviving.
The expected outcomes of the proposed policy
If wellimplemented, the proposed policies arelikely to benefit multiplenations. This is since, first,they will ensure that residents get involved in other economic activitiesand are not interested in poachingactivities. Hence, this will ensure that there is no supply of wildlife productsand ensure that markets do not sell to the consumers. The policy alsosuggests that wildlife risk be more protected, which wil means that the poachers will have a hard time accessing any wildlife animals. This will eventually helpfully minimize the cases of poachingand provide a sustainable solution to the significantchallenge. If well implemented, the policy is also likely to help in more future collaborationsbetweengovernmentsacross the globe. Such partnerships will ensure that countries work together to fight against illegal wildlife trafficking and hence make a huge step in ensuring that all animals are safe nan are always protected from extinction. The policeswill also ensure that there is more collaborationbetween the government agencies and itscitizens. This issince the government will try to reduce the poverty levels and inequality among its citizens and also ensure that they have better economic capabilities and financial freedom . This collaboration will create a greatrelationship between the two entities. Consequently, they wil work together to eradicate the increasing cases of poaching and wildlife trafficking in the country. Citizens will be ready to avail necessary information to the lawenforcement on the issue of poachers or wildlife traffickers, hence making the process of arresting and prosecuting them easily. This will ultimately provide a sustainablesolution to the challenge. Consequently, this wil help with international collaborations with other nations, where the syndicates and caters running the illegal wildlife trade wil be stopped since there will be no more wildlife products to offer to the illicit markets.
The mechanisms of evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed policy
To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed policy, there will be a need to have the necessary tools and strategies that can help analyze where the policy was a success. The most suitable method of understanding the progress of the policy is undertakinga constant review of the number of wildlife, where an increase in the number of wild animals in the parks will be an indication of the policy’s success. This is since it will signify that the number of poaching has been on adecline. On the other hand, a decrease in the number of animals will depict slow or no progress due to the policy.
Anotherdeterminant of the efficiency of the prosed policy will be the number of poachers and traffickers arrested and prosecuted. The higher the number of offenders will mean that the policy hasbeen effective in that it helped in ensuring more arrests and prosecutions of thetraffickers. Another way of evaluating the effectiveness of the policy is by analyzing the market trends of illegal wildlife products. The case that the trade gets lesser and that there are lesserproducts in the illicit markets will be a clearindication of the successful implementation of the policy.
Research and Data Needs
To better understand wildlife trafficking, there is a clear need for more information from relevant bodies and agencies that deal with poaching and wildlife trafficking issues. There is also aneed for information and statistics from the tourism departments in the country, which havesufficient information regarding the amount of wildlife in the country and the prevalence of poaching. The wildlife and tourismdepartmenthas figuresand statistics for over the past years, givinga clear pattern of trade and help identifysustainable solutions. The following research questions will momentously help in identifying sustainable solutions to the challenge:
iii. Wat is the role of the government in combating the cases of illegal wildlife trafficking?
There will then be a need for in-depth research on the subject matter. This will involve a qualitative study that willcomprehensivelyanalyze the subject matter and ensure that sustainablerecommendationsare in place. The bestmethods to collect informationareby the use of both primary and secondary methods. The primary techniqueswill involveusing online surveys to respondents who are conversing with matters of conversation. On the other hand, secondary data will include past publications, journals, and articles with relevant information regarding illegal wildlife trafficking.
Agu, H. U., & Gore, M. L. (2020). Women in wildlife trafficking in Africa: A synthesis of literature. Global Ecology and Conservation, 23, e01166.
Arroyo-Quiroz, I., & Wyatt, T. (2019). Wildlife trafficking between the European Union and Mexico. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 8(3), 23.
Brown, V. F. (2017). The extinction market: Wildlife trafficking and how to counter it. Oxford University Press.
Crayne, S., & Haenlein, C. (2017). Poaching, Wildlife Trafficking and Conflict. In Poaching, Wildlife Trafficking and Security in Africa (pp. 38-57). Routledge.
Haenlein, C., & Smith, M. L. (2017). Poaching, wildlife trafficking and security in Africa: myths and realities (Vol. 86). Taylor & Francis.
Haenlein, C., Maguire, T., & Somerville, K. (2017). Poaching, wildlife trafficking and terrorism. In Poaching, Wildlife Trafficking and Security in Africa (pp. 58-76). Routledge.
Heinrich, S., Ross, J. V., Gray, T. N., Delean, S., Marx, N., & Cassey, P. (2020). Plight of the commons: 17 years of wildlife trafficking in Cambodia. Biological Conservation, 241, 108379.
Kurland, J., & Pires, S. F. (2017). Assessing US wildlife trafficking patterns: How criminology and conservation science can guide strategies to reduce the illegal wildlife trade. Deviant Behavior, 38(4), 375-391.
Miller, E. A., McClenachan, L., Uni, Y., Phocas, G., Hagemann, M. E., & Van Houtan, K. S. (2019). The historical development of complex global trafficking networks for marine wildlife. Science advances, 5(3), eaav5948.
OECD. (2021). 4. Legal frameworks to deter and combat the illegal wildlife trade in Southeast Asia. Retrieved from https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/bb3eae76-en/index.html?itemId=/content/component/bb3eae76-en
Sollund. (2019). The crimes of wildlife trafficking: Issues of justice, legality and morality. Routledge.
Sollund, R. (2017). The use and abuse of animals in wildlife trafficking in Colombia: Practices and injustice. Palgrave Macmillan, London. In Environmental Crime in Latin America, 215-243.
Van Uhm, D. P. (2019). Chinese wildlife trafficking networks along the Silk Road. Organized crime and corruption across borders. Routledge, London, 114-133.
Viollaz, J., Graham, J., & Lantsman, L. (2018). Using script analysis to understand the financial crimes involved in wildlife trafficking. Crime, Law and Social Change, 69(5), 595-614.
Wittig, T. (2017). Poaching, wildlife trafficking and organised crime. In Poaching, Wildlife Trafficking and Security in Africa (pp. 77-101). Routledge.
Wyatt, T., Johnson, K., Hunter, L., George, R., & Gunter, R. (2018). Corruption and wildlife trafficking: three case studies involving Asia. Asian Journal of Criminology, 13(1), 35-55.
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