U.S. Foreign Policy and the Middle East | Assignment Helper

United States’ relationship with the Middle East before the First World War was limited even if commercial relations were there even in early 1900. The U.S. president started some formal relations with the Oman and Sultan of Muscat in early 1833. France and Britain controlled the Ottoman Kingdom; after overcoming them in the First World War, United States declined to take any responsibility, which made the United States highly respected and popular in the Middle East. U.S. people were treated as good and kind people who were untainted by the duplicity and selfishness of Europeans. Christian missionaries from America brought advanced medicine and started their Educational facilities in the Middle East as their spiritual persuading. Furthermore, the United States sent professional petroleum engineers to the Middle East; hence there was a greater relationship between the region and the United States before the beginning of World War II. Other instances of connection between the Middle East and the United States include; Anglo – American Petroleum Agreement and the Red Line Agreement. The two agreements were lawfully sealed and demonstrated American desire in governing the Middle East energy wealth, especially oil, and indicated an authoritative American power to avert the recurrence of an influential local rival.

Red Line treaty was part of the connection of the treaties which were completed in early 1920 to control petroleum supply and ensure that the main American organizations take control of oil price in the Global markets (Isser, 2016). That treaty controlled the growth of oil production in the Middle East for two decades. Anglo-American Petroleum treaty was contracted which sub-divided regions oil resources between Britain and America. Studies indicated that United States representatives had already strengthened their position on the Peninsula by ratification of the petroleum consensus.

The Middle East is among the places with the greatest natural resources worldwide; in the Second World War America, got more engaged in the region. The United States came to consider the Middle East as the most significant region of the globe by the end of World War II and as the greatest resource prize in worldwide history. During this season, the Middle East region was passing through great political, social, and economic changes, and internally the region was in chaos as a result. Diplomatically, the region was having a surge in the reputation of patriotic politics and a significant rise in the number of patriotic political clusters all over the region, which created a significant challenge for both French and English colonial authorities. The regions patriotic political clusters disputed with American plan and desires in the region; thus, Arab ambassador Hare explained world war II as the reason behind the significant divide of the United States and region’s relationship, because these desires will later function as reasoning and background for a great plan of intrusions in the region and also contributes to numerous future conflict between both Middle East and America. This composition will focus on the United States policy shaping and involvement of the United States in the Middle East. The essay will also focus on U.S. wars in the Middle East, the role of the United States government in shaping the policy of the Middle East region, trade and economic relationship between the United States and the Middle East, peace effort and stability, and threats to the U.S.

Truman administration and the United States fought for a resolution and solution to the conflict between Israel and Arabs, and the new Israel State was created in 1948, which caused fights and loss of lives (Khalidi, 2020). The United States was the first to spread political acknowledgment in Israel. Several western nations and the Soviet Union followed suit; however, none of the Arab states recognized Israel. In 1946 Syria became an independent republic; however, after three years, Syria led by Army Chief brought to an end of the civilian rule season. Zakim met with CIA operatives over six times to deliberate his interest to grab power. Zakim asked for financial support; however, it is not known whether this request was granted. Zakim, when he was in power, introduced several decisions that advantaged America. He permitted the Trans-Arabian Pipeline (TOPLINE), United States project for transportation of Saudi Arabian oil to Mediterranean ports; He also greatly built up the relationship between America and Israel & Turkey in the region. Pakistan and Afghanistan are located in South Asia thus are a fragment of the Greater Middle East. United States involvement in Pakistan and Afghanistan happened with the carter government after the attack of the Soviets of Afghanistan. Associations of Afghanistan and Pakistan with the United States have been sealed by the war against terrorism that was happening in both nations. America has been helpful in reducing the conflicts in Northwestern Pakistan and Afghanistan lately; the political situation in the two countries has been bracketed under single threat operations, which are donated by the newly coined American term’ AfPak. United nation have an interest in Libya but have interests in preventing an interruption in oil flow from Persian Gulf. The United States cannot to an Awakening through which individuals’ claims right to their constitution declaring their endowment.

Role of Government/ shaping policy

The United States has been referred to as the world’s policeman. United States has promoted prosperity and democracy since World War II and opposed human rights abuses and also dictatorships around the globe through its diplomatic, economic and military engagement (Tucker, 2020). The United States has served as a pillar of security and order internationally and as a champion of universal freedom. During the post-cold war, the debate continued concerning the role the United  States should play on the world stage and the extent to which the united nation can serve as an indispensable nation. There have been conversations in the central component surrounding military and foreign policy.

United States foreign policy is in the executive branch whereby the White House sets the schedule to develop the national security strategy. Defense and the secretaries of the state play a role in shaping policy, implementing design, and determining priorities. The United States trains and employs diplomats who are posted at United States diplomatic missions in the whole world to carry out their policy. Lawmakers in the senate and house who are in the legislative play a crucial role in foreign policy. Representatives have mandated responsibilities in foreign affairs, including the right to declare war, regulate international commerce, fund the military and approve treaties. Such congressional authorities introduce the ability to do the oversight of foreign policy. Foreign policy is a general goal that controls relationships and activities between states. The growth of foreign policy is impacted by the conduct or policies of other states, political considerations, or strategies to achieve a certain geopolitical plan. Diplomacy is the major implement of foreign policy, war, international trade, and alliances. In 1965, United States policy upon the Middle East swapped, demonstrated in greater clement immigration act as people run away political wars in Lebanon, Iran, Palestine, and Afghanistan in the early 1970s. Political association between the United States and Lebanon were started in the 1800s. In the 1960s’ the United States Embassy in Beirut was the biggest in the Middle East. This swapped when Lebanon’s conflagration erupted that started in 1975 and ended in 1990.

United States’ foreign policy is costumed mainly in the executive arms, whereby the White House sets the objective and gathers a national security plan. At the cabinet, the Defense and State administrator also holds primary function in shaping policy, executing projects, and determining priorities. The United States’ overseas service, under the patronage of the State Department, educate and employs diplomats, who are put at the United States political missions all over the globe to execute out United States overseas policy.

The role of the Congressional committees

In the legislative branch, lawmakers and the senate play an essential role in policy. Elected representatives have constitutional power for foreign affairs, including funding the military, the right to declare war, approve treaties, and regulate international commerce; such authorities can provide oversight on foreign policy. The following committees handle defense, foreign policy, and national security problems;

Role of House of Affairs Committee

It is a standing committee of United States Representatives with a mandate over programs, programs, and research about the overseas affairs of the U.S. House of Foreign Affairs full committee is in charge of legislation and oversight matters related to:

  • Overseas assistance such as security assistance, development assistance, Millennium Challenge Corporation, HIV/AIDS in overseas countries, and Millennium Challenge Account;
  • National security growth that is interfering with foreign policy;
  • Agreements and strategic planning;
  • Deployment and purpose of U.S. Armed Forces, and Executive agreements;
  • peace enforcement, peacekeeping, and enforcement of United States sanctions;
  • The United States intervention for global growth and the global growth finance Organization.
  • Policy and activities of the State, Defense Department, and other branches connected to the foreign assistance Act and Arms Export Control Act Comprising licensing and export rule for technology and ammunitions items and dual-use technology and tools.
  • Worldwide law
  • Public international relations like worldwide exchange and education platforms, global information, communication policy, and all other issues that are not assigned to the subcommittee

The House of Foreign Affairs will have power over legislation concerning the management of the Export Administration Act, together with licensing and transfer of dual-use technology and equipment and other issues connected to international economic trade and economic policy. The steering committee on the International Terrorism, the Middle East and North Africa: have power, supervision of global terrorist dangers, United States’ effort to coordinate and manage international platforms to mitigate terrorism as organized by the Department of State and other agencies. The committee might conduct investigation and oversight with relation to matters within the power of the full committee as stated in the Rules of the House of Representatives. The subcommittees have dominion over the issues affecting political connections between the U.S. and other regions and countries, oversight and power concerning human rights in some countries, management of issues connected to local events of United Nations, of its multilateral institutions and allied agencies, development of choices for solving future challenges attach to United States interests in the countries and regions including cybercrime matters and terrorism, etc.

 

House of Armed Services Committee

House of Armed Services Committee is in charge of funding and oversight of the United States Armed Forces and the Department of Defense. House of Armed Services Committee regular legislative products are found in the National Defense Authorized Act. The committee retains the power of all matters found in the rules of the House of Representatives and holds executive power for:

  • Ongoing military activities, security policy commonly, the management of the department of security and the energy department
  • Inter-institutional reforms as it relates to the department of security and nuclear armaments programs of the department of energy

The committee has the right to exercise legislative power and oversight over all components within its purview. Will manage the committee to have seven subcommittees which will be having management and abilities; some of the committees include; Land Forces and Tactical Air: The subcommittee will be in charge of Army platform and accounts connected to missiles, aircraft, ammunition, group equipment, and other procurement; Air force platforms and plans related to training, surveillance, fighter, electronic warfare aircraft, etc. Military cooperation was a significant pillar as the administration planned to draw closer to the United States armed forces in Iraq, contain Iran, and expand armed forces activities in Afghanistan. Partnership with Jordanian and assistance to Egypt had evolved to involve some reform-oriented elements; however, long-standing diplomatic committee and security cooperation platforms to peace in Israel hindered the extent to administration and congress desired to alter characteristics to those bilateral relationships.

The United States Congress had researched chances of rapprochement with antagonist regimes in Syria and Libya; however, those plans had not produced for robust United States relationship with the public in either region. Violence and unrest in numerous MENA countries between 2010 and 2011 posed a significant challenge to the congress to overcome the inertial influence rapidly and expand knowledge of internal growth in countries (Zanotti et al., 2021). Administration officials and members of the Congress sought to know groups that were currently active and empowered leaders and movements, which aims they wanted to achieve, the grievances that they wished to solve, and ways in which their actions would affect United States Interests. Other subcommittee includes; Strategic Forces: The subcommittee is in charge of Department of Energy and Department of Defense policy connected to strategic stability, strategic deterrence, nonproliferation, missile defense, and space; Cyber, Information Systems, and Innovative Technologies: The subcommittees will provide oversight and be in charge of the electromagnetic spectrum, acquisition of computer programs, cyber security, intelligence, cyber forces, and technology and science.

U.S. Free Trade Agreements

May 2003, the United States initiated the Middle East Free Trade Area Initiative (MEFTA) scheme, a strategy of qualified moves for Middle Eastern countries to build investment and trade with the U.S. and others in the global economy, with the ultimate target of a local free trade consensus. The first move is for the United States to work intimately with countries that were peaceful and interested in being partners of the World Trade Organization (WTO) to assist their succession to the WTO (Pigman, 2016). These nations initiated the rule of law, executed local reform plans, protected possession rights, and formed a ground for economic development and openness. The U.S. will pursue specific techniques to enhance investment and trade relationships with the countries, every plan tailored to the relevant nation’s level of growth. The United States will deepen and expand economic connection through Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs), Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFAs), and comprehensive Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), and other strategic plans as appropriated. FTAs agreement with Jordan, Bahrain, Oman, and Israel is already effective. The United States actively supports the World Trade Organization accession efforts of Yemen, Lebanon, and Algeria. The U.S. has also taken measures to reinvigorate dialogues with other major trading partners in the Middle East, such as Saudi Arabia and Egypt. USTR has continuously coordinated with trading partners in the Middle East to implement the MEFTA initiative. The United Arabs Emirates and the United States decided in 2007 that the timing was not appropriate to concluding FTA negotiations. Since 2007 they have been seeking to pursue investment and trade enhancement through a TIFA-Plus process.

In 2013, Trade in Service Agreement (TiSA) was launched, focusing exclusively on service industries. Formulating the excellent practices around the globe, Trade-in service Agreement surrounds state-of-the-art trade regulation targeting to stimulate open and fair trade all over the full scope of service sectors, from technology and telecommunication to delivery and distribution services. TiSA will also take on current matters confronting the world marketplace, such as a quick expansion market for United States small entrepreneurs and preventing cross-border information flows that can interfere with internet service supply. Trade-in Service Agreement will support the growth of transparent, effective, and strong regulation policies that are significant to enabling global commerce. Twenty-three economies are active in TiSA, representing approximately 70% of the global $55 trillion services market. Trade-in Service Agreement is part of the United States’ continuous effort to create economic chances for the United States, businesses, and workers by enlarging trade opportunities.

Arms sale from the U.S. to other nations

The United States arms sale policy is out of control. Since 2002, the United States has made a sale of more than $197 billion valuations of main convectional armaments and associated military reinforcement to more than 167 countries (Thrall & Caroline, 2018). In his first year of presidency, President Trump authorized weapon deals of a more excellent record pace, making a significant profit from the potential sale. However, even if the sale deal is regarded as a victory and beneficial to the United States, research of American weapon sales indicated that the weapons business is a risky business; the United States has continually traded arms to countries involved in deadly wars, and to countries with the horrendous human right information, with conditions that are not possible to identify where arms will end up or how they will be used (Engelbrecht & Hanighen, 2020). On many occasions, United States forces have engaged in a fight with opponents using American arms. However, major deals such as the United States agreement with Saudi Arabia or trade arms to Ukraine rekindled talks. There is no serious debate in the United States concerning the knowledge of trading extended arms internationally to non-allies and allies. Weapons bought by other nations have been continually used to fight Middle East countries. The war between Turkey and Syria is a good example of how countries that buy arms from the United States use them to fight in the Middle East.

Unite State Threats

The United States faces an excellent terror threat; some of the greatest dangers that the United States faces are lone actors radicalized online who aim to attack soft places with easily accessible weapons (Combs, 2017). This lone actors threat is manifested by both homegrown extremists and violent domestic extremists, and opportunistic arsonists have used this environment. As a result, the United States is facing sophisticated and aggressive threats on most fronts. Terrorists are now using social media, more significant threat on cyber intrusions and government-sponsored economic espionage, or active shooters, malign overseas influence, violent arsonist threatening United States communities, hate crimes, opioid trafficking, and human trafficking. The list of threats that the United States faces is getting longer, and there is no threat that is becoming easier. Majority of the violent extremists, both international and domestic are encouraged by a mix of sociopolitical, ideological, and self-grievances against their aim, that he currently involve bigger public meetings like retail places and worship places. Lone actors are significantly choosing these familiar and soft targets for their terror, making it challenging for law enforcement to detect and interfere before the attack occurs. Domestic violence extremists pose an evolving and steady threat of economic harm and violence in the United States. The main drivers of DVEs are sociopolitical conditions, Islam phobia, law enforcement overreach, racism, misogyny, and anti-Semitism. An attack on 2019 underscores the threat presented by domestic violence extremists and delinquent hate crimes. FTOs and HVAC have created a continuous threat to the United States’ interest globally, while their tactics, tradecraft, goals put in place have evolved. The worldwide terror threat to the United States has developed from sophisticated, externally managed FTO plans involving individual attacks conducted by HVEs motivated by designated terror groups. United States administration encounters significant challenges knowing and disorganizing HVAC. Most foreign terrorist organizations use different technological communication platforms to contact persons they think maybe sympathetic and susceptible to violent terror texts. Terror organizations such as ISIS and Qaeda continuously plan attacks in the United States, despite being defeated in Syria and Iraq. ISIS has tirelessly campaigned for violence in the West and has relentlessly promoted hateful messages, which attract other like-minded violent extremists.

Another long-term threat to the United States’ intellectual and data and economic vitality is the economic espionage and counterintelligence threat from China. China is greatest threat to the United States’ national and economic security (Wray, 2020). Previous closure of Chinese Consulate in Houston is not just a government problem, intelligence matters, or nuisance for corporations; adversaries aim at United States’ main economic assets, ideas and data, technology, research and growth, and innovations. China is the only country that poses the greatest threat, such as the support of the United States. In 2007, Chinese security forces conspired to hack Equifax and other sources that contained personal data for approximately 150 million Americans; this poses a more significant threat to American personal data and threatens security, health, and livelihood.

Peace effort and stability

The globe is currently facing developing risks from violence, conflict, and instability. Worldwide armed state instability and conflict, specifically, create threats to the United States people, United States partners and allies, and United States interest in both worldwide and home (Trump, 2017). Amid this instability, malign actors and adversaries might prey on weaker regions, build influence, exploit their people, and advance their extremist ideologies or narrow interests. For many years, the United States has provided help to countries that are their partners. Most of those countries are now in the rank of most developed globally. They are significant security and economic partners with the United States; they are fundamental in helping to solve challenges. However, other nations have a high level of fragility; fragile nations and regions struggle with unaccountable governance, corrupt institutions, weak social force, and leaders who do not value human freedom and rights. Fragile areas and nations are vulnerable to large-scale violence, armed conflicts, and other instabilities, such as being unable to control transnational threats and other significant attacks. Fragility creates a danger to the American interests, partners, and allies.

The United States plans to control conflict and promote peace targets to cut off the expensive cycles of conflicts and maintain peaceful, secure, and self-reliant countries that become the United States, economic partners. The United States is pursuing other approaches which will handle political drivers’ wars and conflicts and promote domestic driven solutions (Jeong, 2017). The plans have four major goals; prevention, partnership, management, and stabilization. The U.S. will attain these targets by having clear priorities, aligning government activities, and integrating all equipment of United State overseas policy: foreign assistance; diplomacy; security cooperation; financial pressure tools; trade and investment; and strategic communications. The United States train and recruit staff to work in fragile regions. Since the United States cannot attain this alone, its strategies outlines plans to forge partners with private sectors, civil society, multilateral and bilateral contributors and regional partners who can give financial support and provide expertise. United State peace strategy prioritizes on diplomacy, data-driven analysis, sharing information to understand local dynamics hold actors responsible, and target interventions. United State has laid down process to thoroughly check policy results. If changing dynamics demands change in approach, if plans are not showing outcomes, or if partners lack the required commitment, the United State will alter course. However the success of this plan requires commitment and discipline in the overall United States and their partners, and timely and flexible resources towards change of power.  Through the strategy the United States will work to avoid mistakes made in the past and advance United States’ defense and security desires is threatening regions.

Conclusion

United States’ relationship with the Middle East before the First World War was limited even if commercial relations were there even in early 1900. The U.S. president started some formal relations with the Oman and Sultan of Muscat in early 1833. Christian missionaries from America brought advanced medicine and started their Educational facilities in the Middle East as their spiritual persuading. Furthermore, the United States sent professional petroleum engineers to the Middle East; hence there was a greater relationship between the region and the United States before the beginning of World War II. Other instances of connection between the Middle East and the United States include; Anglo – American Petroleum Agreement and the Red Line Agreement. The United States has been referred as the world’s policeman. United States has promoted prosperity and democracy since World War II and opposed human rights abuses and also dictatorships across the world through its diplomatic, economic and military engagement.  The United States has served as a pillar of security and order internationally and as the champion of universal freedom. The United States Congress had researched chances of rapprochement with antagonist regimes in Syria and Libya; however, those plans had not produced for robust United States relationship with the public in either region. May 2003, the United States initiated the Middle East Free Trade Area Initiative (MEFTA) scheme, a strategy of qualified moves for Middle Eastern countries to build investment and trade with the U.S. and others in the global economy, with the ultimate target of a local free trade consensus. The United States deepened and expanded economic connection through Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs), Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFAs), and comprehensive Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), and other strategic plans as appropriate.

The United States faces excellent terror threats. The United States’ greatest threats are lone actors radicalized online who aim to attack soft places with an easily accessible weapon. This lone actors threat is manifested by both homegrown violence extremists, and domestic violence extremists, and opportunistic arsonists have used this environment. Another long-term threat to the United States intellectual and data, and economic vitality is the economic espionage and counter intelligence threat from China. China is the greatest threat to United States’ national security and economic security. Another long-term threat to the United States’ intellectual and data and economic vitality is the economic espionage and counterintelligence threat from China. China is the greatest threat to the United State national security and economic security. The United States plans to control conflict and promote peace targets to cut off the expensive cycles of conflicts and maintain peaceful, secure, and self-reliant countries that become United States, economic partners. The plans have four significant goals; prevention, partnership, management, and stabilization. The U.S. will attain these targets by having clear priorities, aligning government activities, and integrating all equipment of the United States overseas policy: foreign assistance; diplomacy; security cooperation; financial pressure tools; trade and investment; and strategic communications.

Annotated Bibliography

Combs, C. C. (2017). Terrorism in the twenty-first century. Routledge.

Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century guides learners about terrorism, responses, and recent movements that influence the future of terrorism. Placing terrorism into past perspective and examining it as a system of radical violence, this text presents the most vital concepts, the latest data, and most case studies to endorse real scrutiny of terrorist acts. Terrorism in the 21st century factually splits down the what-who-how-why of terrorism, providing a great way to know patterns of conduct and more judgmentally assess impending patterns.

Engelbrecht, H. C., & Hanighen, F. C. (2020). Merchants of Death: A study of the international armament industry. Routledge.

The author of this book outlines weapon business as a risky business, especially between Middle East countries and other countries. This book indicates that the profit gained from the weapon business is more significant, but the results outdo all the benefits. It also discusses how policy change is long late, despite the United States embracing conservative wisdom. In count to the enormous agreement with Middle East countries like Saudi Arabia about arms trade consensus, the author discusses how the arms trade has disrupted conflicts in nations. The author discusses weapon trade as a risky business.

Isser, S. (2016). The Economics and Politics of the United States Oil Industry, 1920-1990: Profits, Populism and Petroleum. Routledge.

Initially printed in 1996, this book traces the development of United States administration policy on the oil manufacturers between 1920 and 1930 when the national organization of production governor was established. It discusses the growth and failure of oil importation controls and the harsh struggle for economic leases created by government directives. It deliberates the two oil disasters and the specter of Gulf War calamity and the standings of civic view in modeling the policy schedule. It also provides a detailed study of congressional oil polls from 1950 to 1980 and the creation of oil policy, starting with philosophies of economic directives, the role of concerned groups in evolving the policy schedule, and the purpose of finances in politics.

Jeong, H. W. (2017). Peace and conflict studies: An introduction. Taylor & Francis.

The wide scope of the article reflects the great process made maintains peace worldwide in the last mid of Twentieth Century. More importantly, the authors do not only discuss how to stop bombing and shooting but also focus on positive peace plans such as human rights, economic growth, and environmental matters.  The article has deepened on more worldwide perspectives that cause fragility. I.T. has broadened research beyond conflict resolution to include how to build peace. The author has discussed the main peace trends in the past years.

Pigman, G. A. (2016). Trade Diplomacy Transformed: Why Trade Matters for Global Prosperity. Lulu. com.

This article, Trade Diplomacy Transformed: indicates how primary conversions in the past two eras in why and how to trade mediation shaped the significant movement of products, capital, services, and labor overseas, as sellers and buyers meet in the international marketplace. Commencing with the closely connected origins of negotiation and global trade in earliest history, the account searches the tariff talks that initially opened global trade in the nineteenth era, the rise and development of institutions such as the World Trade Organization and the European Union and the recent quick blast in the negotiation of trade disagreement solutions. In its provoking conclusion, Trade Diplomacy Transformed held that, if it is to continue active as a site for the international business diplomacy, the WTO must restructure itself to be more like the European Union.

Thrall, T., & Caroline, D. (2018). The Role of Arms Sales in U.S. Foreign Policy (Vol. 836). policy analysis

This book focuses trading major conventional arms, particularly to regions where there conflicts. It shows that selling arms as enough evidence that accrued to make selling of weapons clear that the outcomes outweigh the benefits. It discusses how policy change is long late, despite United States embracing the conservative wisdom. In count to the enormous $110 billion agreement with Saudi Arabia, the author discusses how the arms trade has disrupted conflicts in nations. The author discusses weapon trade as risky business. The author discusses how some countries purchase weapons and use them against Middle East countries.

Trump, D. J. (2017). National security strategy of the United States of America. Executive Office of The President Washington DC Washington United States.

National Security Strategy of the United States of America article discusses the global currently developing risks from violence, and instability. This article explains how worldwide state instability and conflict, creates threats to the United States people, United States partners and allies, and United States interest in both worldwide and home. The writer discusses how countries and regions are having high level of fragility, and how fragile nations and regions struggle with unaccountable governance, corrupt institutions, weak social force, and leaders who do not have value of human freedom and rights.

Tucker, S. C. (Ed.). (2020). The Cold War: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection [5 volumes]. ABC-CLIO.

This article covers every part of the Cold War, from its beginning in the ashes of World War II, through the Cuban Missile Crisis and Berlin Wall, to the downfall of the Soviet Union in. The Cold War world power face-off amid the United States and Soviet Union dominated global matters in the second part of the 20th period and still resonates around the globe today. This complete and perceptive multivolume customary provides firm entries on all features of this world event, including military technologies, wars, diplomatic initiatives, significant organizations and individuals, economic developments, espionage activities, culture and societal actions, and more. This expansive exposure gives readers with the required information to understand the many aspects of this multifaceted conflict.

Wray, C. (2020). Responding Effectively to the Chinese Economic Espionage Threat. speech to the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), Washington, DC.

Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), Washington, DC guides learn about the long-term threat to the United States intellectual and data, and economic vitality is the economic espionage and counterintelligence threat from China. The author records speech of (CSIS) in Washington, DC that explains the previous closure of Chinese Consulate in Houston is as a government problem, intelligence matters, or nuisance for corporations; adversaries aim United States main economic assets, ideas and data, technology, research and growth, and innovations.

Zanotti, J., Blanchard, C. M., Sharp, J. M., Arieff, A., Thomas, C., Humud, C. E., … & Collins, S. R. (2021). Congress and the Middle East, 2011-2020: Selected Case Studies.

This report evaluates some of the policy insinuations of current and continuing actions in the MENA, gives an outline of United States reactions to date, and searches select studies to demonstrate some major dilemmas and questions that policymaking and the congress branch may expression with respect to these matters and other expected issues. Questions for probable congressional deliberation rose in this article and inconsistent nation reports.

 

 

References

Combs, C. C. (2017). Terrorism in the twenty-first century. Routledge.

Engelbrecht, H. C., & Hanighen, F. C. (2020). Merchants of death: A study of the international armament industry. Routledge.

Isser, S. (2016). The Economics and Politics of the United States Oil Industry, 1920-1990: Profits, Populism and Petroleum. Routledge.

Jeong, H. W. (2017). Peace and conflict studies: An introduction. Taylor & Francis.

Pigman, G. A. (2016). Trade Diplomacy Transformed: Why Trade Matters for Global Prosperity. Lulu. com.

Thrall, T., & Caroline, D. (2018). The Role of Arms Sales in US Foreign Policy (Vol. 836). PolicyAnalysis

Trump, D. J. (2017). National security strategy of the United States of America. Executive Office of The President Washington DC Washington United States.

Tucker, S. C. (Ed.). (2020). The Cold War: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection [5 volumes]. ABC-CLIO.

Wray, C. (2020). Responding Effectively to the Chinese Economic Espionage Threat. speech to the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), Washington, DC.

Zanotti, J., Blanchard, C. M., Sharp, J. M., Arieff, A., Thomas, C., Humud, C. E., … & Collins, S. R. (2021). Congress and the Middle East, 2011-2020: Selected Case Studies.

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