Territorial and boundary disputes have often led to division and war creating significant social problems in the world. Ideally, people have remained divided due to different reasons, including culture, ethnicity, race, physical walls, ideologies, and boundaries. Boundary disputes have stemmed from cultural and material claims, fundamental changes in the international and domestic environments, and geopolitical games of big-power competition and rivalry. Divisions have led to wars and cultural conflicts, which influence the growth and development of nations. The United States and Mexico signed a treaty, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, whose aim was to end the war between Mexico and the United States that resulted from territorial disputes. The primary source for this paper is “The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; A legacy of conflict. This paper will cover an analysis of the historical and social context of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo has played a significant role in ending the division between the United States and Mexico. Therefore, discussions and negotiations are essential in solving disputes and ending divisions among conflicting communities and countries.
In the early days, there was always a division between the United States and other countries. During the 18th century, Mexico emerged as its own, which led to conflict with its neighbor, the United States.. This was a division that existed and still exists to date. In early 1848, following the U.S occupation and capture of Mexico City, negotiations rose from a preliminary draft of the treaty. Both governments ratified the treaty, where the U.S agreed to pay $15 million and guaranteed the Mexicans that were absorbed in the United States and their descendants certain land and political rights.
Mexico agreed to give up fifty-five percent of its land, including California, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, Texas, Nevada, and New Mexico.. The negotiation of the treaty led to many knotty issues that were caused by the Mexicans’ stubborn refusal to accept defeat and their sense of honor. The treaty found the boundary between Mexico and the United States from the Gulf of Mexico to the southern boundary of the Mexican province. The exact boundary was marked by collective commission from both governments.
In his 1990, Richard Griswold del Castillo illustrated the broad history of the two conflicting states, which included a brief history of the United States-American war that led to the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The book shows great division that led to territorial disputes and wars. The author has covered the vivid journey of events during the period and the catalysts that led to conflict between the two countries. The author explains how the United States desired to purchase Texas from Mexico after they made multiple offers. After unsuccessful attempts, Mexicans aided self-separation. These actions resulted in instant conflicts and war between the United States and Mexico. The Mexican-American war stemmed from the U.S annexation of Texas and the Rio Grande.
The treaty of Guadalupe was written in 1848 and signed by Mexico and United States to end the war between the two countries and extend the boundaries of the United States.. The treaty was written by Major General Winfield which was later signed by Don Bernardo Couto, Nicholas Trist, Don Luis Gonzaga Cuevas, and Don Miguel Atristain.. The document was meant for the United States and Mexicans to end the territorial dispute. The treaty was also meant to grant federal citizenship to the Mexicans in the various territories acquired by the United States.
Borders have various functions, which include distributing sovereignty over territory and determine what belongs to who. Borders have been used to communicate that a certain territory falls under the jurisdiction of one state. Therefore, this determines who will benefit from the resources in the territory and which state can rule and tax individuals living there. However, it’s challenging for states to agree on the legal boundaries of territories they run. The possession of territories and distribution aspect of borders explains why disputes over location have persisted.
Territorial disputes are often linked to the possession of natural resources such as fertile land. Over the years, America’s borders were up for grabs. Although a line to indicate the border had been drawn, the border and territory issues were far from being settled. Disputes and wars arose while the United States struggled to define the border.. This was not the first time the United States had encountered border issues.
Richard Griswold del Castillo was born and raised in Santa Ana, California. Richard attended U.C.L.A and UC Berkeley and taught Chicano and United States history at SDSU for approximately 36 years. Ricardo published various books, including the Treaty of Guadalupe: A legacy of Conflict, A social history, the Los Angeles Barrio, and the North to Atzlan. All his teachings were linked to ethnic studies concerning Chicano studies and Mexican culture. Considerably, it is evident that Griswold paid great attention to the history of Mexico and the Chicano culture about these teachings and books. Griswold has offered the reader a large sense of worthiness in his books since he reveals expertise in the subject.
Griswold is a professor of Chicano and Chicana studies who draws upon various fields, including sociology, history, and arts, on the Mexican-origin population in the U.S. From culture to history and related issues, the study of Mexicano people addresses the political, social, economic, and cultural conditions of the Mexicano people. Therefore, ethnic studies on the Mexicano people enabled Griswold to give a greater viewpoint in the book. However, the author is subject to racial bias since he has focused on Chicana studies which entail community empowerment and social justice on Mexican-origin people in the United States.
The author strongly favors the Mexicans and pictures the United States as a bully that only focuses on what it desires. He believes that the United States felt that they were somewhat powerful and superior compared to Mexico. Therefore, they decided to take advantage of the weakness to obtain what they wanted. Griswold stated that the United States knew that Mexico has an unstable administration that would be challenging for them to reach decisions.. During the Mexican war, the United States relied on warfare as a tool for diplomacy to attain their goals of favorable boundary settlement and territorial expansion.
The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo tells of the territorial disputes that existed between the United States and Mexico and how the U.S relied on warfare to gain part of the Mexican territory. The primary source also focuses on the Mexican war and the role of the treaty in ending the war calamities in the two states. Griswold not only focuses on what happened during the war but also shows the significance of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in creating peace between the U.S and Mexico. However, the contradictory and conflictive nature of the negotiations was influenced by the unstable government of Mexico.
In conclusion, the Treaty of Guadalupe: A legacy of conflict is a unique work by Griswold which contains a history about the Mexican-American war and the negotiations that happened within the period to end the war. The books show that political actions and consistent discussions revolved around the establishment of the treaty. The treaty was not economically, governmentally, or socially enforced but aimed at replacing the damages faced by the American-Mexican communities. Therefore, discussions and negotiations are essential in solving disputes and causes of divisions among conflicting communities and nations.