The transition from the romantic era to the modernist era was influenced by the need for the sovereignty of reason and individualism. The notable political movements in this transition were the industrial revolutions and the French revolution. These led to the forming of Neoclassic and liberation movements which was influenced by philosophers and scientists who circulated their ideas through printed material, journals, and scientific meetings. There were numerous advances in physics and astrology during the transition (Manganaro, 2014). The notable ones being Galileo Galilei, who pioneered the development of the telescope and Isaac Newton, who discovered the laws of universal gravitation. The transition undermined the church monarchy and religion as they paved the way for political revolutions. There was increased questioning of religious practices as philosophers advocated for scientific reasoning and individual liberty. The transition also shuttered the class subjugations that were there in the Romantic era; for example, prejudice against women’s ideas considered lesser. In France, women were at the forefront in providing literary ideas as salons were the principal social institutions.
Music in the romantic era was composed majorly for the nobles, highly educated and wealthy in the society as common people were believed to be unable to appreciate fine music. The modern age considered that all humans were equal and that they could enjoy music. The music created was universal for all people to listen. The music was different from the Baroque music, the dominant style during romantic era which comprised of intricate melodies and skill refinement and was replaced by music that focused on enjoyment (Manganaro, 2014). The notable music composer during this time was Ludwig van Beethoven who advocated for individualism and realism. The composers of music during this transition produced music that was geared towards a more diverse audience. The composition of music differed from the normal rhythm and harmony to a more simplistic form of music. There was also the switch to using electrical music instruments to make music as a result of growth in machinery discoveries and also the use of lute and bassoon instruments. The rise of the middle class during the modernist era led to diversification in music as ordinary people could study music, which was only reserved for the rich during the romantic period. There was a rise in public concerts for artists as the audiences responded to the change in music positively.
Manganaro, M. (Ed.). (2014). Modernist anthropology: From fieldwork to text (Vol. 1123). Princeton University Press.