In Chapter Three of Inside Terrorism, Bruce Hoffman states that “The terrorists who seized the El Al flight in 1968 had done so with the express purpose of trading the passengers they held hostage for Palestinian terrorists imprisoned in Israel,” demonstrating a shift in the intentions of terrorist movements around the globe. Understanding the motive of terrorism exposes individuals to an enabling environment where they can visualize the role of different challenges that hinder them from understanding outcomes in their surroundings. Looking at modern strategies that are used by terrorist groups to oversee their influence in the contemporary society expose a line of weakness that can be used to define the counterterrorism measures adopted by different governments around the globe. However, this strategy changed because of the decision made by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) hijacked an Israeli plane that was on transit to Tel Aviv from Rome. In analyzing the arguments discussed by Bruce Hoffman, this paper will dwell on the evolution of terrorism and its impact on the progress witnessed in the geopolitical space. The internationalization of terrorism has undergone a process of transformation that inspires terror groups to align their thoughts with the changes occurring in the global environment such as technological innovations to accomplish their wild desires.
The PLO and the Internationalization of Terrorism
The transition from a localized style of operations to dominating the global stage was influenced by the ability of the PFLP to organize terror attacks with the aim of disrupting activities in the geopolitical environment. Considering the approaches that should be used to create change in the contemporary society, many terror groups focus on inspiring fear by promoting violence. Although the PFLP has undergone a series of transformation, analyzing their mode of operation exposes individuals to an enabling environment where they internalize the approaches that hinder individuals from discovering their potential. For instance, traveling became more manageable because of the introduction of advanced planes that could cover vast distances within a short duration, enabling terrorists to execute their plans and vacate immediately. Likewise, communication through the mainstream media improved significantly, allowing terror groups to execute attacks and announce their involvement across the primary news channels. For this reason, the introduction of innovative tools and solutions provided an opportunity for terrorist groups to expand and grow their influence in the world today.
Modern terrorist attacks demonstrate the evolution of the terror mindset and their ability to embrace technological innovations to pursue their wild purpose in life. For example, the London Bombing that took place on 7th July 2005, the terrorists detonated their bombs and escaped through the London Subway System, avoiding the detection of the cameras. From this observation, the amount of research conducted by terror groups indicate a localized coordination with the native population group, which enable them to penetrate the system and understand their way of life. Besides, the London Bombing is a manifestation of how hatred and radicalism can be used to influence individual perspectives towards life. PFLP founder George Habash once indicated in an interview shared with the rest of the world that their ability to hijack a plane has more impact than killing a hundred people on the battlefield. Given the disputed roles of both the UK and the terrorist group, it is unbecoming for individuals to differentiate between right and wrong on the geopolitical space, a weakness militias around the world seem to be taking advantage.
Violent extremism is fueled by the inability of governments to expose individuals to an enabling environment where they can accomplish their desired goals and objectives. Aspects such as marginalization, inequality, and the persecution of perception provoke the thought process of individuals and how they visualize their interactions with other people in their surroundings. Terrorist attacks are fueled by an overzealous behavior to accomplish certain objectives that intend to explore the vulnerabilities demonstrated by other countries. Even though the motive of the attack is to convey a message, using innocent civilians as collateral disputes the concept of human existence. Armed with the hope of overcoming the immediate challenges and regaining their strengths, the Palestinians anticipated a time when they would avenge for the actions of the Israelis. For instance, the USS Cole Bombing in 2000 when the guided missile destroyer was refueling in Yemen is a manifestation of the internationalization of terrorism. Just like the U.S. military formations, the Al Qaeda puts in work that seeks to accomplish set objectives. By conducting similar training simulations, the terror group delivered a near-perfect outcome that send shock waves across the U.S administration at the time. For this reason, evaluating the role of technological innovations in the realization of terrorist expectations leads individuals towards the concept of internationalizing terrorism.
The 1972 Munich Olympic Games
In the 1972 Munich Olympic Games, Palestinian terrorists killed eleven Israeli athletes, an event that was conducted on the global stage. Coming from the point of total obscurity to dominating conversations on the geopolitical world, Palestinians terrorists had succeeded in their efforts to globalize their activities and create a climate of fear for developed economies. Athletes are considered the pride of every nation because of their ability to elevate the country’s values and belief system to the world stage. On this unfortunate event, the terrorists captured the attention of different global policymakers who had undermined the influence of the terror groups and their ability to execute largescale attacks on a foreign country. While the attack on Israeli athletes was not orchestrated to exploit Israel, the Palestinian terrorists demanded the release for five of their counterparts who were being held by the German authorities. Considering the media coverage, this event attracted the Palestinian terrorists demonstrated their influence on the world, causing global panic that led to the reevaluation of the measures put in place to deal with the growing terror groups.
Following the uneventful outcomes recorded in the 1972 Munich attack, both Palestinian terrorists and German authorities were criticized in equal measure. The Palestinian cause was disputed for its inability to protect life because of their worldly desires. At the same time, the German authorities were questioned on their readiness to handle a largescale terror attack. In the world today, many governments have devoted their resources to overcome challenges attributed to terrorism on the global stage. In the U.S., drones were proposed as a perfect counterterrorism strategy that reduces the casualty rate by eliminating boots on the ground. Drone strikes deliver a perfect result that distances the government from any concern that can be raised by individuals regarding their influence on the foreign region. Likewise, counterterrorism measures around the world will vary because of the different perception attached to the influence of a terror group after evaluating its capacity to conduct an attack.
The internationalization of terrorism has undergone a process of transformation that inspires terror groups to align their thoughts with the changes occurring in the global environment such as technological innovations to accomplish their wild desires. Notably, the rise of terror groups in the world presented an opportunity for countries to develop measures that would respond to terror attacks staged by international militants. By tracking the growth of these groups, Hoffman, in Chapter Three of his book, addresses the strategies that should be formulated to resolve different cases affecting the overall wellbeing of individuals. Established economies should put in measures that respond to the changing geopolitical environment to make informed decisions in their style of governance.
Hoffman, Bruce. Inside terrorism. Columbia university press, 2006.
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