The paper focuses on the spread of the SARS-CoV virus in the United States of America. SARS virus is a species of coronavirus that infects humans and bats, among other mammals. Adedokun, Olarinmoye, and Mustapha say that the virus was first reported in China before it spread out to other parts of the world. The United States is the most affected country recording the highest number of cases and resultant deaths. The virus spread rapidly and has affected all parts of the united states of America due to its ease of spread among the people.
Biology of SARS-CoV
SARS virus is a member of the coronavirus family. SARS virus has thirty thousand long base pair single-stranded ribonucleic acid. The virus has fundamental proteins; matrix, envelop, nucleocapsid, and spike, and non-fundamental proteins. It can infect other cells through viral attachment hence its ease of spread.
The SARS virus affects the respiratory tract. It is supported by two types of receptors, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, which enable the transmission of the virus into the human cells. Their spikes can bind to the human receptors, which have a higher affinity, being the reason behind the virus’s fast spread within the United States of America.
SARS after Reproduction
Once the virus reaches the respiratory tract, it stimulates an immune response due to the high rate of multiplication. The pulmonary tissue becomes damaged due to the high number of white blood cells. It is known as the cytokine release syndrome, which is due to the inflammation of the lungs. The inflammation leads to less oxygen absorption, hence the failure of several organs. Lymphocyte cells reduce leading to the exhaustion of the remainders, leading to a weaker immune system, and consequential organ failure.
SARS Mode of Entrance into the Body
To get into the Human body, the virus is mainly introduced through the respiratory organs. It happens through inhaling droplets of moisture from an infected person. It can also be contracted from touching surfaces contaminated with the virus using hands and then transferring the virus from the hands to their eyes, nose, or mouth. It can also be transmitted through the digestive tract. It happens through the absorptive cells of the small intestines.
Signs and Symptoms
SARS virus is accompanied by a series of signs and symptoms. They include painful throat, headache, sneezing, muscle pain, high fever, nasal blocking, vomiting, dry cough, and diarrhea. According to Das and Ghangrekar, to detect the virus from asymptomatic patients, one must undertake tests on blood sample, saliva, or sputum. Once detected, there are no specific drugs that are entirely effective in the treatment of the disease. It is mainly controlled through strengthening the patient’s immunity and providing conditions that do not favor the growth of the virus within the patient.
Forces affecting the spread of SARS Virus
Different forces are behind the spread of the virus within the United States of America. America is among the most democratic countries, with the citizens receiving among the highest levels of freedom. Once the first cases of the virus were first announced in the country, the government was slow at taking action. The government only waited until the virus reached the different states before the lockdowns were announced. The lockdowns were enforced after the virus reached all the parts of the country. Due to the ability of the virus to spread quickly, the short period between the best time to enforce the lock downs and other measures, and the actual time when the measures were enforced was enough time to see to the spread of the virus rapidly among the citizens.
Communicating with Patients
The government, media groups, online sources, among others, communicate to the patients. They offer the patients the moral support they require and offer them guidelines on how to cope with the disease and come out as champions against it. Being the first-hand contact with the patients, nurses provide them with as much support as they can, both physically and emotionally as they go through the illness. Being a SARS victim is a challenging encounter as one constantly sees how people die.
The Big Picture
SARS virus is a highly lethal virus in the United States of America. America leads with the highest number of cases and resultant deaths. There is no vaccine for the virus yet. Everyone has a role to play to make sure that the virus is curbed and controlled fully. All citizens have to follow government guidelines to make sure that they keep themselves safe. Medical practitioners should also make sure that they do their best to keep the public safe by offering good healthcare.
Ethical and social problems
Protection and Prioritization of Healthcare Workers
After the emergence of the SARS virus, healthcare workers have been on the frontline at the fight. Amy and Mark, among others, remind us that they are essential to help those already infected and to protect those who are not infected. Their position exposes them at the risk of contracting the virus. Many of them have died in their line of duty. It raises a lot of concern seeing the high mortality rates yet they are still forced to remain at the front position.
Discrimination and Health Equity
There exist inequalities that are based on race, gender, or ethnicity. The discriminated groups are less prioritized in receiving healthcare, even after suffering from the SARS virus. In the United States of America, the patients are misdiagnosed or not prioritized. Their receiving services depend on certain conditions, unlike in their counterparts who are treated well despite the conditions. Many people have lost their lives due to not being prioritized and served after certain patients who might be even in a better state.
The SARS CoV virus has spread massively throughout America. It is easily transmitted from one person to another hence the fast spread. Its existence has brought a lot of ethical and social concerns that affect our day to day life.
Adedokun, K.A., Olarinmoye, A.O. and Mustapha, J.O. A close look at the biology of SARS-CoV-2, and the potential influence of weather conditions and seasons on COVID-19 case spread. Infect Dis Poverty 9, 77. 2020. Retrieved From https://idpjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40249-020-00688-1
Amy L. McGuire, Mark P. Aulisio, F. Daniel Davis, Cheryl Erwin, Thomas D. Harter, Reshma Jagsi, Robert Klitzman, Robert Macauley, Eric Racine, Susan M. Wolf, Matthew Wynia, Paul Root Wolpe and the COVID-19 Task Force of the Association of Bioethics Program Directors (ABPD). Ethical Challenges Arising in the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Overview from the Association of Bioethics Program Directors (ABPD) Task Force, The American Journal of Bioethics. 20 (7):15-27. 2020. 10.1080/15265161.2020.1764138
Das S, and Ghangrekar MM. The COVID-19 pandemic: biological evolution, treatment options and consequences. Innov. Infrastruct. Solut.5(3):76. 2020. 10.1007/s41062-020-003
 Adedokun, K.A., Olarinmoye, A.O. and Mustapha, J.O. A close look at the biology of SARS-CoV-2.
 Das S, and Ghangrekar MM. The COVID-19 pandemic: biological evolution, treatment options and consequences. Innov. Infrastruct. Solut. 2020. 76.
Amy L. McGuire, Mark P. Aulisio, F. Daniel Davis, … Ethical Challenges Arising in the COVID-19 Pandemic: