The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP/IP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) are protocols used for transmitting network data to and from system servers to users’ application (Qiaoyu et al., 2017). The protocols only vary in their functioning since the TCP uses a connection-oriented transportation system, but the UDP’s communication system is connectionless. The role of the TCP communication standard is to facilitate the exchange of messages across networks of different application programs and computer devices. The major role of UDP is to establish a low-latency connection between internet applications. The UDP also ensures faster transmissions by quickening the data transfer process before agreement by communicating with parties.
The IP is a layered protocol of the OSI model. An IP address is a specific identification lark for a device uniquely on an IP network. The address contains 32 binary bits, which are divisible into portions of the network and hosts using the help of subnet masks (Vargas et al., 2019). The binary bits are divided into four octets converted to decimals and separate using periods (dots). Hence, an IP address is expressed in a dotted-decimal form. A subnet mask refers to the 32- bit number created when host bits are set to 0s and network bits are set at 1s. Subnetting facilitates the creation of many logical networks within several classes in a single network. Failure to subnet makes it unrealistic to use networks without different classes. Every data link in a network system requires a special ID where each node belongs to the same network. Hence, each data link contains a unique subnet ID.
In the hospital network, the IP address is assigned to the hospital devices on the internet. The IP address is equated to the postal address, which receives letters for the owner; hence the IP address receives internet traffic. Internet Service Providers assign IP addresses to private computers, where they assign either as static IP addresses or as dynamic IP addresses.
A static IP address refers to an address permanently assigned to a computer owned by the Internet Service Provider without compromising the computer reboots. A static IP address is majorly assigned to servers hosting websites, emails, FTP and database services. Once the static IP address is assigned to a computer, the user manually configures to the static IP address. Contrary, a dynamic IP address is an address assigned to a computer dynamically. When an IP address is assigned to a computer dynamically, the device does not receive a similar IP address that was assigned previously.
A public IP address is an address assigned to a computer to facilitate direct access to the internet. The public IP address enables access to web servers, emails and other servers. On the other hand, a private IP address refers to the address space assigned by an InterNIC to enable organizations to create private networks of their own (Qiaoyu et al., 2017). A private IP address uses three IP blocks, namely 1 class A, 1 class B and 1 class C. The private IP address is majorly found on personal computers, smartphones and tablets. When a computer contains a private IP address, local devices view the computer using private IP addresses.
The DHCP is a protocol that assigns the IP addresses either statically or dynamically to computers using local networks (Vargas et al., 2019). The DHCP also gives additional information to computers on routers, subnet masks and hosts. On the other hand, the DNS helps in resolving issues in an address. It also converts symbols into IP addresses an also reverse the IP addresses into symbolic names. The DNS also helps locate active domain servers.
Qiaoyu, S., Qiaoyan, S., Lijuan, C., & Chuanyun, Z. (2017, March). Application of wireless local area network in the hospital information system. In 2017 IEEE 2nd Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC) (pp. 263-266). IEEE. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8054018
Vargas, L., Blue, L., Frost, V., Patton, C., Scaife, N., Butler, K. R., & Traynor, P. (2019). Digital healthcare-associated infection: A case study on the security of a major multi-campus hospital system. In NDSS. https://www.ndss-symposium.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/ndss2019_03B-1-1_Vargas_paper.pdf