From the late 18th century to the 19th century, there were multiple incidences of revolutions in the Atlantic World, which entails the interaction between people from America, Africa, and Europe joined by the Atlantic Ocean. The revolutions mostly took place in America and Europe. The American revolution took place from 1765 to 1783, where France, the Netherlands, and Spain aided the New United States of America in securing independence from Britain (Wiesner-Hanks, 2021). In the 1790s, there was the Haitian revolution, where the mainland Spanish colonies acquired their independence around 1820.
The US revolution inspired the French revolution in 1789, then spread to Europe through its wars. 1799 is remembered for the continuation of the French Revolutionary wars where Napoleon took over France. This was by conquering most of the European continent. Despite Napoleon having modern concepts such as civil code and equality, his military occupation led to multiple national rebellions, with the most notable ones being Germany and Spain (Wiesner-Hanks, 2021). After his defeat, the great European powers decided to forge a Holy alliance, where they held a congress in Vienna between 1814 to 1815, intending to prevent future revolutions. They also decided to restore the previous monarchies, which had been abolished.
Spain was nevertheless weakened by the Napoleonic Wars and was hence unable to control its American Colonies. There was more revolution between 1810 and 1820, where upsprings were witnessed in Spain, Greece, Portugal, and Spain. This was followed by two similar revolutionary waves in 1830 and 1848, referred to as the Spring of Nations. Due to the Spring of Nations, the violent repression marked the end of the revolutionary era.
Wiesner-Hanks, M. E. (2021). A History of World Societies: Volume 2: Since 1450, Edition ( Bedford/St. Martin’s) (12th ed.). Boston, New York.