Research Critiques and PICOT Question Analysis | Assignment Help

Quantitative and Quantitative Studies

Nursing Practice Problem and PICOT Question

  1. What is your identified nursing practice problem?

The identified nursing practice problem entails a study on how the problem of obesity in the United States affects and impacts the nursing practice profession. That is, its impact on functionality of nursing practice in the provision of the required health care for a growing number of affected persons in the American population.

  1. List your PICOT question, following one of the templated formats reviewed in the course.

In adult population with obesity problems (P) what are the key approaches that can be utilized to prevent the high prevalence of obesity problems (I) as compared to regular treatments and control (C) in remedying high costs of dealing with chronic diseases associated with obesity (O) in its developed stages (T)?



  1. Summary of studies. Include problem, significance to nursing, purpose, objective, and research question.

The essay examines the problem of obesity in the United States and the extent nursing profession is affected by the rampant prevalence of the health issue. Obesity in the United States is a profound public health issue affecting millions of adults and children in the country. The prevalence of obesity poses a serious health risk to millions of Americans exposing them to chronic diseases such as high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, type I and II diabetes, among others. The extent to which the chronic diseases caused by obesity problems is a profound threat to the lives of American people. Newman (2019) asserts that one in every five deaths in the U.S. each year is a result of obesity. Over 100 million adults and children are directly affected by the problem of obesity and overweight issues. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention statistical analysis report, there have been an increment in prevalence rates of 42.4 percent in 2017 – 2018. The cases recorded from 1999-2000 through 2017-2018 shows a high prevalence rate increase from 30.5 to 42.4 percent (CDC). This sums the cumulative annual budget estimated dedicated to the treatment and prevention of obesity in the approximate figures of $150 billion. In a study conducted by Sanyaolu, Okorie, Qi, Locke and Rehman (2019), obesity is a major problem in America affecting both children and adults with adults being in greater danger. This is a cause of public health crisis as nurses are bound to be more overwhelmed dealing with cases caused by the prevalence of the problem (Kamik & Kanekar, 2012). The more children are in greater danger of obesity, the bigger risk is posed to the future generation and strength of the nation’s health system to deal with the expanded effects of obesity (De Lorenzo et al., 2019). Further, Pearce, Rychetnik, Wutzke and Wilson (2019) elucidates that hospitals and community health services play a critical role in the prevention, treatment and control of the prevalence of obesity cases among the American population. Similar sentiments are echoed by Wang et al. (2020) and Pearce, Rychetnik and Wilson (2021) in the change of approach to dealing with obesity problem before its manifestation. Conclusively, Schoenaker, De Jersey, Wilcox, Francois and Wilkinson (2021) emphasize the value of proper diet, physical activities and healthy living as integral to the prevention of obesity and related diseases in the country.


How do these four articles support the nurse practice issue you chose?

  1. Discuss how these articles will be used to answer your PICOT question.

De Lorenzo et al.’s (2019) article is on delving to the issue of obesity as a problem in the society. This helps get a clear understanding of obesity as a PICOT problem worth further pursuing. Thus, the article will be used to expound the problem of obesity and its impacts on the American population as a focus of the PICOT question allowing develop a deep understanding of the magnitude of the problem’s existence and its implications in the future of American society. Kamik and Kanekar (2012) in the article the focus on examining on the population mainly affected by obesity and its impacts on the society. This will be used to provide a solution to the PICOT question on how to remedy and improve the health conditions of the affected population. Pearce et al. (2021) examines the financial costs of obesity on the health systems and its variations in different stages. This is critical to the PICOT question as it sets precedent on how to reduce the high financial costs incurred in dealing with the problem of obesity in the society. This includes at individual level of the affected persons and society at large, as well as, the massive nursing professionals and nursing practice expansion essential to dealing with contemporary issues associated with obesity. Pearce et al. (2019) focuses on the examination of the possible treatment approaches and how the problem of obesity can be mitigated in the society. This is essential to the PICOT question as the article provides different approaches that can be viable in dealing with a variety of treatments of obesity. Consequently, improvement in dealing with obesity problem among the populace is bound to be highly enhanced and building a healthy population. Moreover, Sanyaolu et al. (2019) delves on the impacts of obesity on a particular target population – children. This is bound to create a better understanding of the PICOT question and implications it induces on the society on basis of target population and treatment approaches. Finally, Schoenaker et al. (2021) examine a variety of approaches that be applied in mitigating the problem of obesity in the society. This is vital to identify to most effective and efficient approach to utilize in dealing with obesity culminating in the termination of the problem and prevention from transforming into a menace in the society.


  1. Describe how the interventions and comparison groups in the articles compare to those identified in your PICOT question.

The most affected persons by the problem of obesity in the society constitute of children and adults. This manifests for the lifestyle and consumer habits that have become a norm in the American society. For example, the consumption of fast foods, carbonated beverages, and lack of continuous physical activities is a profound cause of the escalation of obesity cases in the United States. A change of approach proposed in the articles propose extensive health and fitness awareness as a major approach to the prevention and eradication of obesity problems, as well as, its associated diseases. Schoenaker et al. (2021) emphasizes on the value of proper dietary intake and physical activity as a key feature to reducing the problem of obesity.

Similarly, Pearce et al. (2019) echoes the value of a united front where the community prioritizes proper health and physical activities as preventive measures before including hospitals and community-based health services in dealing with obesity problem. A need for policy change in how nurses respond to obesity cases is integral to intervene on the development and prevalence of the problem. This requires collective measures where health professionals play an integral role in ascertaining patients and the community is a way of best approaches to preventing the manifestation and prevalence of obesity and its related diseases (Pearce et al., 2021). Therefore, the proposed intervention measures require collective engagements between health professionals, nursing practice, and community health services to preventing the problem of obesity in the society.

Method of Study:

  1. State the methods of the articles you are comparing and describe how they are different.

Kamik and Kanekar (2012) and Pearce et al. (2021) articles utilize a qualitative research methodology. De Lorenzo et al. (2019) and Schoenaker et al. (2021) articles utilize quantitative research approach. Pearce et al. (2019) and Sanyaolu et al. (2019) articles utilize both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. The examines of the three different approaches is fundamental to the study. The quantitative research approach illustrates how the study can utilize statistical data in examine the extents in which obesity poses a problem in the society. That is, the most affected persons, age brackets, ethnic groups, regions/states, among other demographics. Also, examines the economic implication of obesity problem in the society. The qualitative approaches utilized in the articles illustrates the social and behavioral aspect of obesity problem in the society. That is, consumer behaviors, demand for investment in physical training centers, changes and transformation in lifestyle perceptions, community engagements, among others. The application of both approaches is fundamental to set pace for the study on the capacity to expound on all aspects and implications of obesity problem in the society. As well, delve into the implications obesity problem has on the nursing practice profession.


  1. Consider the methods you identified in your chosen articles and state one benefit and one limitation of each method.

To ascertain the maximum investigation into the problem of obesity in the American society, the utilization of both qualitative and quantitative approaches is crucial. The use of both approaches complements the deficits of each other making the results to be the most illuminating findings of the study. The approaches utilized in the study are bound to cover the affected population, financial implications, impacts on the nursing practice, and application of different intervention measures. Therefore, to ensure the best results, both approaches are essential to provide an extensive coverage of the problem.


Results of Study

  1. Summarize the key findings of each of the studies into a comprehensive summary.

De Lorenzo et al. (2019) key findings emphasizes on the significance of defining the precursory indicators of obesity phenotypes with a view to identifying possible morbidity and mortality risk indexes. Kamik and Kanekar (2012) focuses on the key challenges that undermine the eradication of obesity problem in the society including financial and stigmatization of obese children. As well, Kamik and Kanekar (2012) posit that change in government actions policy and safe environmental interventions is a major problem that needs further investigations to eradicate the problem of obesity in the society. Pearce et al. (2021) finds the value of individual responsibility and approaches in the fight against obesity as integral to its prevention and eradication in the society. Additionally, Pearce et al. (2019) emphasizes on the significance of healthcare services to patients and utilization of health professionals in the treatment and prevention of obesity. Sanyaolu et al. (2019) finds that the change in diet and lack of exercising among children is highly to be blamed for the increase in obesity cases among children in the United States in the recent past. Finally, Schoenaker et al. (2021) asserts that healthy diets and physical activities among pregnant women are vital for overall health of both the month and child.


  1. What are the implications of the four studies you chose in nursing practice?

Therefore, the overall conclusion is that, the change in diet, lifestyle and physical activities is vital to the improvement of the state of obesity problem in the United States. Policy change and approaches should focus on engaging members of the community in ascertaining that the problem is prevented. Thus, the articles emphasize on the value of community inclusivity in measures of eradicating obesity, nursing profession taking the lead role in transforming the society, and government policy change to facilitate the changes and requirements for obesity prevention measures.


Ethical Considerations

  1. Discuss two ethical considerations in conducting research.

Conducting a research involving patients and nurses – there are two main ethical considerations to make including: –

  1. Patient’s consent to utilize their health issues and history as part of the case study.
  2. Confidentiality of nurses taking part in the study.


  1. Describe how the researchers in the four articles you choose took these ethical considerations into account while performing their research.

All participants taking part in the research are required to sign a confidential agreement and consent authorizing their participation in the study. This is crucial to ensure all participants are protected and equally protect the whole exercise. Also, to ensure the protection of the data acquired from diverse individuals, maintaining anonymity of each participant is crucial to eliminate any form of bias, as well as, utilize the information to represent the entire population.


Outcomes Comparison

  1. What are the anticipated outcomes for your PICOT question?

The anticipated outcomes for the PICOT question include: –

  1. Identification of most affected population in the society.
  2. Measures to prevent the prevalence of obesity problem.
  • Best remedies and nursing practices that can be applied in resolving obesity problem in the society.
  1. The approaches to minimizing costs accrued in dealing with obesity problem.
  2. Significance of dietary and physical activities in reducing cases of obesity in the society.


  1. How do the outcomes of the four articles you chose compare to your anticipated outcomes?

De Lorenzo et al. (2019) outlines the approaches to countering the increase in the cases of obesity. This conforms to the PICOT outcome of best practices and remedies that can be utilized in remedying the problem of obesity. Similarly, Kamik and Kanekar (2012) proposes various factors that influence childhood obesity. This identifies the target population that is more prone to the problem of obesity with most profound adverse implications on the society. Additionally, Pearce et al. (2021) address the role of health services and nursing practices that can be utilized in the treatment of obesity. Finally, Schoenaker et al. (2021) emphasizes on the value of dietary and exercising as part of minimizing cases of obesity in the society.


Proposed Evidence-Based Practice Change

  1. What is the link between the PICOT question, the research articles, and the nursing practice problem you identified?

The PICOT question identifies the target population, various intervention measures, existing nursing practices and remedies applied in mitigating obesity problem, as well as, the costs incurred in the treatment of the disease. The PICOT question objectives have been expounded by the chosen articles to illustrate various approaches in dealing with diabetes. The articles are essential to explain the existing literature and practices that have been applied in resolving obesity problems. The nursing practice is critical to providing continuous care to patients with obesity problem. Also, the nursing practice is fundamental to engaging the target population on various ways to minimize cases of obesity. Furthermore, the nursing practice is essential in creating awareness to the need good diet and physical activities as vital to resolving obesity issues among the affected persons.


  1. Based on this information, propose an evidence-based practice change for your identified setting.

The target population should acquire data across different age groups. This is vital to provide evidence for the most vulnerable population in the society. As well, this is bound to provide information on the population with most profound adverse effects on the society. For example, children developing obesity problems are bound to cause rampant adverse effects on the society. That is because, children constitute of the future generation. It is important to sustain healthy individuals to maintain a productive society, minimize health costs, and provide a course for safe generations in the future. This is as a result of acquired genetic features in the affected persons that can pose a threat of obesity to new born.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevent, (CDC). (Jun. 7, 2021). Overweight & Obesity: Adult obesity facts. Retrieved from

De Lorenzo, A., Gratteri, S., Gualtieri, P., Cammarano, A., Bertucci, P., & Di Renzo, L. (2019). Why primary obesity is a disease?. Journal of translational medicine17(1), 1-13.

Karnik, S., & Kanekar, A. (2012). Childhood obesity: a global public health crisis. International journal of preventive medicine3(1), 1.

Newman, K. (Sep. 19, 2019). Obesity in America: A public health crisis. USNews. Retrieved from

Pearce, C., Rychetnik, L., & Wilson, A. (2021). The obesity paradigm and the role of health services in obesity prevention: a grounded theory approach. BMC Health Services Research21(1), 1-10.

Pearce, C., Rychetnik, L., Wutzke, S., & Wilson, A. (2019). Obesity prevention and the role of hospital and community-based health services: a scoping review. BMC health services research19(1), 1-16.

Sanyaolu, A., Okorie, C., Qi, X., Locke, J., & Rehman, S. (2019). Childhood and adolescent obesity in the United States: a public health concern. Global pediatric health6, 2333794X19891305.

Schoenaker, D. A., De Jersey, S., Willcox, J., Francois, M. E., & Wilkinson, S. (2021, February). Prevention of gestational diabetes: the role of dietary intake, physical activity, and weight before, during, and between pregnancies. In Seminars in Reproductive Medicine. Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc..

Wang, Y., Beydoun, M. A., Min, J., Xue, H., Kaminsky, L. A., & Cheskin, L. J. (2020). Has the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity levelled off in the United States? Trends, patterns, disparities, and future projections for the obesity epidemic. International journal of epidemiology49(3), 810-823.

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