Relationship between Physical Exercise and Falls in Elderly People

Falls are dangerous and can be harmful or even fatal. Falls are common to elderly people who suffer from dementia or cognitive impairment. Dementia is a problem that is affecting people all over the world, especially the elderly. Once a person is diagnosed with the condition, it is likely that he or she will be admitted in a hospital. While at the hospital, elderly persons living with this condition are likely to fall often and may be injured in the process.

The frequent falls may arise due to patients being in a new environment and some falling into delirium. The elderly with dementia ought to be managed by applying fall prevention strategies to prevent such occurrences in a hospital setting (Lim, 2017). Physical exercise is a way that can be used in a hospital to reduce falls among the elderly According to Chan et al. (2017), most studies have shown that falls can be prevented through exercising regularly. These exercises may help those with a cognitive disability.

The general purpose of these studies is to find a long term solution for the elderly with severe conditions from falling while at the hospital. Quantitative research involves the collection and analysis of data from the target group. Research on frequent falls among the elderly is essential to the nurses as they can be able to manage these patients effectively (Nery, 2017). Given that the research is qualitative, the results are very reliable for nurses.

The two articles are critical in solving the PICOT question. They focus on assessing the affected group hence clear results are almost guaranteed. As Lim (2017) suggests, Gait causes immobility to the affected individual. To help the elderly with such diseases, exercising their bodies regularly to improve their movement skills is essential. Engaging the elderly in exercises that involve multitasking could improve the motor skills. These skills help them when they are multitasking hence prevent falling.

Older people with cognitive impairment have been found to fall frequently as they move around. After analyzing the results collected, there is evidence that physical exercises help reduce future falls (Chan et al., 2017). Indeed the two articles help in the research since both focus on investigating how exercises may be a solution to the frequent falls in the elderly.

Several methods can be used in quantitative research. One of the articles uses randomized trials while the other uses both systematic review and randomized trials. A systematic review involves several studies from other sources. The systematic review is used in one of the articles since the information provided is a result of studies from other sources. For instance, the information provided in the article involves information from other researchers. Also, randomized trials were used since the researcher used a sample of 781 participants to carry out the assessment.

Randomized controlled trials involve experiments from the target group. According to Chan et al. (2017), a routine assessment was done on patients with dementia and other conditions that lead to falls in a hospital setting. The two methods used in the research are different because one uses information from other researchers while the other uses assessment results observed over a while in an actual hospital setting.

The methods have both advantages and limitations. Randomized trials are known to contain little or no bias. As a result, this method is reliable in collection of quantitative data. Also, they give a lot of evidence about the study since the study involves assessment of the affected individuals. However, randomized trials have the weakness of being inadequate in a situation where the sample is small or contain a negative variable. Systematic is least used in studies as it has several limitations. For instance, the method is time-consuming since it requires the compilation of information from other sources. It, therefore, becomes tiresome to put all this information in one review.

Nonetheless, the systematic review becomes important when conducting meta-analysis (Pal, 2014). Despite their limitations, the two play a great role in obtaining reliable results that are used to make better conclusions.

Persons with dementia are likely to fall while in an institution. However, there are other causes of falls apart from dementia. The elderly are likely to fall if they have gait problems. In the past, there are not been specific strategies to reduce falls among the affected group. To ensure the falls are reduced, recommendations given against falling of the elderly have shown to be effective. If the recommendations fail, it may be due to other causes rather than the causes of falls addressed in the course of the study (Lim, 2017). Chan et al. (2015) note that frequent exercises among the elderly with a cognitive disability helps in reducing falls within the hospitals.

However, other studies may be necessary to determine how often the elderly will engage in these exercises. Implications of research studies in the health sector are now emerging. According to Rashid et al. (2018), clinical trials are improving the health sector. Promoting health education to the patients is critical. Consequently, research on the effect of physical exercises on falls is essential in nursing since the studies help them to manage falls in the elderly perfectly. The fact that nurses are aware that exercises are effective, they will educate the elderly on the importance of these exercises. Also, health officials from all over the world will use the findings to improve the health sector as a whole.

Quantitative studies are meant to investigate a problem and give recommendations on the same. The problem under investigation is whether physical exercises prevent falls in elderly people within the hospital. The anticipated outcome is to prove that indeed exercises help the elderly to improve their health. Also provide evidence of whether it helps in preventing falls. The anticipated outcome and that of the two articles are similar.

Older people are prone to falling especially when they suffer from dementia and other disabilities such as cognitive impairment. After conducting the research, Lim (2017), indicates that performing physical activities will improve the mobility of the elderly and at the same time improve their balance. The same is also noted by Chan, et al. (2015). He notes that after the findings it is indeed true that physical exercise can go a long way in improving cognitive impairment among the elderly. If the problem is solved, falls that arise as a result of this disability will not occur. 

References

Chan, W. C., Yeung, J. W. F., Wong, C. S. M., Lam, L. C. W., Chung, K. F., Luk, J. K. H., … & Law, A. C. K. (2015). Efficacy of physical exercise in preventing falls in older adults with cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association16(2), 149-154.

LIM, S. C. (2017). Managing the elderly with dementia and frequent falls. Open Access Text. Retrieved 27 January 2021 from, https://www.oatext.com/managing-the-elderly-with-dementia-and-frequent-falls.php#Article_Info

Nery, E. A. (2017). Quantitative research in nursing science. Scielo. Retrieved 27 January 2021 from, https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1414-81452017000100101&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en

Pal, S. (2014). Randomized trials vs meta-analyses. The ASCO post. https://ascopost.com/issues/june-10-2014/randomized-trials-vs-meta-analyses-which-is-the-better-bet/

Rashid, M. A., Llanwarne, N., Heyns, N., Walter, F., & Mant, J. (2018). Plos one. Retrieved 27 January 2021 from, https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195076

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