The immigration issue has been at the forefront of the political agendas of several states in the United States as the country grapples with the ever-increasing immigrant population. Immigrants are either legal or illegal. Legal immigrants are those who have been issued with U.S. citizenship by way of chain migration and the visa lottery. Illegal immigrants are unauthorized immigrants who cross the poroU.S. borders in the U.S. and live there without a permit. The illegal immigrants into North America are mostly from the South American regions, with Mexico claiming the highest proportion of the share.
Context of immigration Issue
The current United States legal immigration policies jeopardize national security. Under the chain immigration, foreign nationals settle in the U.S. permanently and subsequently bring over other foreign relatives, so, in turn, bring more foreign nationals, and the chain continues (Kandel, 2018). Under the visa lottery system, up to 50,000 foreign nationals are admitted to the U.S. under permanent residency. The foreign nationals admitted to U.S. citizenship under these conditions need not have any skill or education. This random selection of foreign national poses a significant threat to national security as the system might be rigged to bring in spies into the U.S. and may harbor terrorism plans. The illegal immigrants pose a higher risk as they are undocumented, making the tracking cumbersome as they are not in the country’s social security system.
Policy formulation involving immigration in the U.S. has been reviewed in recent years in an attempt to improve the national security of the country. The policies approved that there would have a wall on the Mexican-U.S. border, the major crossing point of illegal immigrants into the United States (Tucker, 2019). This is projected to reduce the number of illegal Hispanic immigrants in the U.S. The Trump administration has put forth legislation to temporarily ban the issuance of U.S. citizenship to foreign nationals based on family ties and lotteries.
The welfare of illegal immigrant children has emerged as a core issue in treating of unauthorized immigrants. The concern raised was whether the children of illegal immigrants should be granted U.S. citizenship if they were born in the United States. The welfare of the children is at stake here, as the U.S. is also committed to ensuring children born in the country are well taken care of. This is in direct contact with the family separation policy of illegal immigrants. The issue of the rights of immigrants is also a key concern to the authorities. The legal and illegal immigrants are accorded their full rights according to the constitution of the U.S. The rights of the illegal migrants are often overlooked, as was the case in the zero-tolerance policy by the Trump administration, where they were treated as having no rights.
The cause of immigration into the U.S. is majorly in search of opportunities. They view the U.S. as where they can fulfill their dreams by getting a decent job with decent pay. The opportunities in their countries of origin are limited and scarce hence the urge to migrate to better economies like the United States. Comprehensive rational decision making is the theoretical model on how public policies are made. All options are identified and compared with the alternatives that show the greatest net benefit being chosen. This decision-making process has been used in the immigration issue in the United States, where the cost-benefit analysis yielded to the decision to reduce the number of skilled workers. This is under the campaign of Make America Great Again, which emphasizes on the need to have more U.S. citizens take up jobs previously given to the immigrants.
Elections in the United States have seen an increase in the political influence of immigrants in the presidential race. The immigrants have an increased voting power, which the aspirants trying to harness to their favor, especially the Hispanic Community. Politicians persuade them in order to swing the presidential vote to their favor.
Overcoming Policy Paradox in Public Sector
Governments face a daunting policy paradox where on the one hand, it is operating in a world where the citizens’ expectations of what the government ought to deliver and the hampering of such service delivery by unsustainable debts and reduced budgets. The demands among the citizens are caused by social change and technological innovations which have put pressure on the governments. The government, however, can solve this paradox by having a systematic approach in solving the management problems (Kattel and Mazzucato, 2018). The approach favors a more rational solution rather than an ideological solution. The approach can overcome the service delivery paradox by collaborating with the private sector, where some services are privatized for better quality. Empowerment of the citizens through investments of their skills and expertise can be utilized to improve service delivery in the public sector by creating efficient and more affordable services.
Administration Methods of Policy Implementation
Political decentralization delegates policy-making authority from a central authoritative group to subgroups as they deem that the decisions could best be handled at a regional level. This signifies a reduction in power in terms of policy implementation from the central government and increased powers to the lower authority. The lower authority is responsible for the implementation of the policy.
The top-down administration method of policy implementation parallels the decentralization method as they seek to achieve a different goal. The top-down method seeks to consolidate the central power, and there is a clear hierarchy of authority. There are clear, articulate goals that are delegated by the elected officials to non-elected persons who are accountable to the elected officials (Homsy, Liu & Warner, 2019). This method may lead to the implementation of policies that are not citizen’s preferences. The bottom-up administration method starts implementing policy from the target group as they are the actual consumers of the policies. This method leads to the decentralization of authority. The discretion and authority allow these agents to hamper the policy implementation as they may create ambiguous U.S. goals.
Homsy, G. C., Liu, Z., & Warner, M. E. (2019). Multilevel governance: Framing the integration of top-down and bottom-up policy-making. International Journal of Public Administration, 42(7), 572-582.
Kandel, W. A. (2018). U.S. Family-Based Immigration Policy (Updated). Current Politics and Economics of the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 20(1), 27-73.
Kattel, R., & Mazzucato, M. (2018). Mission-oriented innovation policy and dynamic capabilities in the public sector.
Tucker, R. W. (2019). Immigration and U.S. foreign policy. Routledge.