PICOT On Fall Prevention

Falls are a common occurrence in the modern world because of balance difficulties and general muscle weakness. Many of the patient falls are attributed to long term problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and hypotension. Among the elderly population, poor vision and depreciating physical fitness is often associated with falls, which expose them to a wide range of problems that influence their perspectives towards life. Over 20% of the falls lead to injuries, a move that has compelled health institutions to develop a series of approaches that can be used to reduce the prevalence of falls in the contemporary community. From this realization, the question that will guide this study is discussed below.

What evidence-based nursing approaches can be used to promote fall prevention across different population groups?

PICOT Question

P (Patient, Population, or Problem)

The mid-aged population, above 35 years, who have an average risk of experiencing falls, as opposed to others such as the elderly.

Interventions

Some of the nursing interventions that can be used to prevent falls are as shown below;

  • Strength training and exercise program
  • Home modification to enhance safety by reducing the probability of falling
  • Conducting a fall risk assessment to develop fall simulations that enable individuals to avoid injuries
  • Medical review to identify underlying conditions that might contribute to falls
  • Encouraging patients to wear comfortable and sensible shoes that reduce the possibility of falling
  • Withdrawing individuals from treatment approaches that contribute to falls such as psychotropic medication

C (Comparison or Control)

While the elderly population receive treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, the mid-aged individuals only respond to emerging health issues. Compared to the aged population, mid-aged people have a healthier lifestyle that compliments their existence in the contemporary society (Cheng, Tan, Ning, Li, Gao, Wu, & Hu, 2018). In this regard, it is important to focus on alternative methods that can be used to respond to the falls and their ability to prevent injuries among the affected individuals. Some of the nursing methods include the following;

  • Insertion of a pacemaker to increase carotid hypersensitivity
  • Increase an individual’s Vitamin D supply
  • Vision treatment to reduce the prevalence of falls, which increases injury prevention
  • Removing home hazards that increase the chances of falls
  • Lighting up the living area to promote visibility and reduce the prevalence of falls across different population groups
  • Using assistive devices such as handrails when getting down the staircase or using shoes with nonslip treads
  • Increasing physical activity

O (Outcomes or Objectives)

The intended outcome is to decrease the prevalence of falls among the mid-aged population who receive medical treatment for emerging health conditions. Falls reduce the quality of life because of the ensuing injuries, which may affect mobility and lower the ability of individuals to connect with other people (Vlaeyen, Stas, Leysens, Van der Elst, Janssens, Dejaeger, & Milisen, 2017). From this realization, various nursing approaches such as promoting medical visits and increasing physical activity will be used to promote fall prevention in the identified population group.

T (Time)

Since the medical activity will take place in a primary care setting, the process will expose individuals who have experienced falls to four weeks of therapy to increase awareness on the causes of falls and their impact on mobility.

Methods

In formulating the PICOT question, a search was conducted on research databases such as ProQuest to identify the causes of falls and how they can be prevented using the following words;

  • Patient care
  • Patient falls
  • Falls prevention

Articles were limited to five years after their publication to ensure the study relied on recent nursing insights.

Discussion

In the primary care setting, nursing practitioners were expected to conduct hourly rounds to monitor patient behavior and respond to individuals who experienced different issues that increased their chances of falls. It was established that falls can be prevented by increasing the level of care administered to patients.

Conclusion

Since more than 20% of falls yield to injuries, there is a need to promote fall prevention approaches that lower the impact of the outcomes on individual lifestyle. Considering the nature of approaches used by mid-aged individuals, it is important to focus on various aspects of existence that influence people’s perspectives towards falls. However, increasing physical activity levels, wearing comfortable shoes, and removing health hazards at home are some of the alternative approaches that promote fall prevention in the world today.

 

 

References

Cheng, P., Tan, L., Ning, P., Li, L., Gao, Y., Wu, Y., … & Hu, G. (2018). Comparative effectiveness of published interventions for elderly fall prevention: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. International journal of environmental research and public health15(3), 498.

Vlaeyen, E., Stas, J., Leysens, G., Van der Elst, E., Janssens, E., Dejaeger, E., … & Milisen, K. (2017). Implementation of fall prevention in residential care facilities: A systematic review of barriers and facilitators. International journal of nursing studies70, 110-121.

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