Pneumonia is an acute respiratory tract illness that blocks the pulmonary parenchyma. It can be categorized into nosocomial and community acquired pneumonia (CAP).Pneumonia is ancillary to airborne infection including parasites, virus and bacteria. The bacteria that cause pneumonia are Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenza (Najafi and Sandrock, 2017). The main types of bacterial pneumonia include lobar pneumonia which is characterized by acute soreness of the lobe and bronchopneumonia which affects the bronchi and extends to the lungs.
Antibiotics and Treatment
While it is not necessary to have an underlying illness to get pneumonia, causal factors such as diabetes, old age and drug addiction among others impact the host’s immune system. Given that the elderly patient has comorbid disorders such as COPD and diabetes, there is need to use a mixture of antibiotics. Use of novel fluoroquinolones solely or combining them with macrolides and a beta- lactam will aid in recovery (Pahal et al., 2020). The immunization and control in this age set is very important. On the other hand, the young adult has no comorbidity, therefore monotherapy comprising use of macrolides such as clarithromycin and azithromycin is given first priority. This therapy is targeted against mycoplasma which is a common trigger for less acute CAP.
Determining Need for Hospitalization
Pneumonia is a primary cause of hospitalization for many adults. The decision to admit a patient ought to be well informed given the repercussions that may impact the patients and hospital. This can be done by using a patient severity scale such as pneumonia severity index (PSI) to inform selection of outpatient versus inpatient treatment (Najafi and Sandrock, 2017). Moreover, use of electronic ED decision support tool for patients with pneumonia is also effective. Studies show that patients with pneumonia exhibit improved outcomes after utilizing the ED support tool. These tools are essential in observing risk factors such as causal comorbidities, renal failure and systolic blood pressure among others.
Pahal, P., Rajasurya, V., & Sharma, S. (2020).Typical Bacterial Pneumonia.
Najafi, S., &Sandrock, C. (2017).Hospitalized patients with acute pneumonia.Hospital Medicine Clinics, 6(4), 456.