Methods Used to Measure Crime and Criminal Behavior Patterns
O.J Simpson’s case is one of the most famous court cases in the U.S., where O.J Simpson was accused of the murder of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman. The American law enforcement community and the officials used different methods to investigate the case. First, they made use of the DNA evidence, where they had 108 exhibits and blood samples as a way of linking O.J Simpson to the crime (Mueller, 1996). The officials had the option of using the DNA samples as evidence against the defendant since there were no direct witnesses linked to the murder. DNA was the only physical evidence that could implicate the defendant to the murder. However, these samples were faulted by the defense since it accused the plaintiff of interfering with the evidence (Abdollah, 2014). The defense also stated that the police planted the blood evidence. Additionally, the police used the past events between the involved parties as a way of determining whether the accused had any motive for the murder. Simpson and his wife had past issues to do with domestic violence, a factor that was tabled during the court session as a likely cause of him wanting to murder his ex-wife. The American Laws enforcement and the prosecutor had 150 witnesses who testified during the trial.
Schools of Thoughts and Theories of Criminal Behavior
The two most relevant theories of criminal behaviors discussed in this course are based on sociological and biological aspects. Some of the social behaviors associated with criminal activities may include poverty, gender roles, and any other issues within the society that affects the relationship between two parties leading to crimes. Weak and broken bonds within family, religion, or any other institution are also catalysts to human behavior changes leading to engagement in crimes. The Biological theory states that human behavior can be determined by their genetics to a considerable degree. The genes can be passed from one generation to another and could contribute to criminal behavior.
Criminology Approach or Theory
For sociological theories, there is a wide range of environmental factors that are likely to cause criminal behavior. The theory states that people engage in crime since they do not see the benefits of adhering to social values. For the biological theory, a person can get involved in criminal activity due to factors such as hormones, genes, environmental contaminants, human DNA, or even exposure to drugs or alcohol during pregnancy.
Theory and O.J. Simpson
The sociological theory relates to the case of O.J Simpson. The prosecutors and complainants blame the deaths of Simpson’s Ex-wife and friend on past domestic violence. They claim that their behavior is likely to indicate that the relationship troubles and wrangles can be blamed for the crime (Park, 1996). Nevertheless, the biological theory does not relate to the case, since it is not in any way used in incriminating the suspect.
Alternative Explanations of Crime
Other alternative explanations for the crime would be the classical crime theory, where the crime could have been committed by an individual out of a free will. This is where the person who committed the crime did it willingly and understood his/her consequences.
O.J. Simpson Crimes
O.J Simpson was accused of killing his ex-wife and friend, a charge which he denied. After the trials and hearings, the judge acquitted him, citing the lack of enough evidence that he was the person behind the crimes.
Some of the aspects of the crime include the DNA and blood samples that matched Simpsons. The police stated that they were found in the scene of the crime. There were also witnesses at the trails who indicted O.J. of having committed this crime.
Steps of The Criminal Process
The first step of the criminal process includes an investigation of crime by the police, followed by arresting of the suspect. After this, the suspect is prosecuted in a court of law and then an indictment by the Grand Jury. He/she is then arraigned by the judge, after which there is the Plea bargaining between the defense attorney and the prosecutor. Then, there is the adjudication of guilt and later the judges make decision on the sentencing.
Beginning the investigation
The law enforcement officers began by visiting the scenes of crime and collected the blood and DNA samples. Later, they went to the house of the victim to identify any vital lead to the crime (Dershowitz, 1996). Additionally, they made enquiries from the neighbors about the previous incidents, where they then issued a warrant of arrest for O.J Simpson, since he was the main suspect for the crime.
Indicting O.J. Simpson
First, the police officers identified the series of actions that the prime suspect undertook. They looked for blood and DNA samples which all pointed to Simpson. The relationship between the main suspect and his ex-wife was also another factor that made the police identify the key suspect. They traced him, arrested him and arraigned him in court, where he entered a plea of not being guilty
Trial Process and The Final Verdict Process
The police issued a search warrant to search Simpson’s mansion, where they found traces of blood in his property. Simpson was not present at the time. He, however, returned from L.A., where he found the police, who handcuffed him and took him to the station for questioning. He promised to surrender to the authority but later fled. After sometime, he ultimately surrendered and was arrested and taken to jail with no bail. His trails began, where he was accused of murder. He pleaded not guilty of the alleged crimes and a jury of eight members was selected. The Jury listened to the proceedings of his trial to decide on whether the suspect was guilty or not. The Jury deliberated for four hours after months of hearings, where they returned with a verdict of ‘not guilty’ on the two counts of murder.
Human Diversity in The Criminal Justice System
Issues of racial profiling were presented at the court where the police and the prosecutors were accused of racially profiling Simpson, and using this as a critical factor for accusing him. There are recordings of Mark Fuhrman, a critical detective, who is heard making multiple racial slurs, where he also bragged about how he could enforce police brutality on Simpson. He, however, denied the claims during his cross-examination.
Abdollah, T. (2014). OJ Simpson’s case taught police what not to do at a crime scene.
Dershowitz, A. M. (1996). Reasonable doubts: The OJ Simpson case and the criminal justice system, 55.
Mueller, C. B. (1996). Introduction: O.J. Simpson and the Criminal Justice System on Trial.
Park, R. C. (1996). Character evidence issues in the OJ Simpson Case-or, rationales of the character evidence ban, with illustrations from the Simpson Case. U. Colo. L. Rev., 67, 747.