Myocardial Infarction Outline

  1. What is a Myocardial Infarction?
  2. Definition

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a cardiovascular illness that causes ischemic necrosis of the myocardial tissue. Globally, and in the US, MI is a leading killer disease.Many kinds ofresearch have been conducted, but none has provided a clear etiology of MI. Mechanic et al (2021) elaborates on how Myocardial Infarction causes decreased coronary blood circulation when the demand for oxygen exceeds the amount of oxygen supplied. As a result, cardiac ischemia occurs, causing damage or infection to the major blood vessels within the heart.

  1. Causes

Whenever myocardial oxygen supply is suppressed, as a result of the blocking of the coronary arteries, myocardial ischemia might occur.Mechanic et al (2021) states that coronary artery disease is the primary cause of MI, which is closely associated with the risk factors of atherosclerosis. Other causes include coronary artery embolism, dissection, vasospasm, thrombophilia, and myocarditis.

  1. Types of MI
  2. STEMI

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is a form of acute coronary syndrome that occurs when there is complete obstruction of the coronary artery. If no reperfusion is performed, the sudden death of the myocardial cells results, impairing the normal myocardial blood circulation.


Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is a form of acute myocardial infarction, whichtranspireswhen the coronary artery is partially occluded. The inner layer of the myocardiumis the major casualty of NSTEMI.

  1. Statistics

In the US cardiovascular disease (CVD) kills the highest number of people. According to Benjamin et al (2019), the US death rates caused by CVD reduced by 13.2% between 2006 and 2016.Over the last two decades, the ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction incidents in developed nations have potentially reduced. Nonetheless, despite the improved accessibility to reperfusion therapy, a high mortality rate is still rampant, particularly among the aging population (Heusch&Gersh, 2016). Conversely, the cases of STEMI are rapidly increasing in developing countries, coupled with inadequate access to interventional reperfusion.




Benjamin, E. J., Munter, P., Alonso, A., Bitterncourt, M.S., Callaway, C. W.,… Virani, S. S. (2019). Heart disease and stroke statistics. The American Heart Association, 139(10).

Heusch, G., &Gersh, B. J. (2016). The pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction and strategies of protection beyond reperfusion: a continual challenge. European Heart Journal, 38 (11), 774-784.

Mechanic, O. J., Gavin, M., & Grossman, S. A. (2021). Acute myocardial infarction. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved May 27, 2021, from


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