The eras of policing are divided into three distinct eras including the political, reform and the community problem-solving era. The eras examined in the paper include the reform and the community problem-solving era.
According to Lumb & Metz (2019), the reform era entailed a period focused towards the correction and the reconstruction of the police departments. It involved the redefinition of the duties of the police to facilitate the maintenance of law. The era contributed to a more centralized policing. Also, the social distancing between police and the communities increased. Technology also increased in police service. For instance, there was increased use of police cars, telephones and the two-way radio for the increment of communication.
The community service era incorporates a strategy of crime control that works along with the provision of community services. The police and law enforcers work in collaboration with the local community to facilitate the safety of the neighbourhood. The philosophy of policing went back to decentralizing in addition to the creation of special units of the community policing officers.
Various factors affect law enforcement in the current society. Among the factors that affect the process of law enforcement include the shortage of law enforcement personnel. The shortage of persons charged with the process of law enforcement limits the speed used in the process of law enforcement. Fetters (2018), elaborates that the limited number of law enforcers are not able to handle all the cases at the right time. The resulting factor is that most of the cases end up being handled slowly. The existing numbers of the police in the United States, for instance, present that the responsibilities held by single police officers could be efficiently shared among ten officers. The officers who hold the positions, as a result, are not able to deliver on their roles efficiently.
The other issue that affects the process of law enforcement in the United States include that the law enforcing agencies have weak personnel with the inability of efficiently delivering on their mandate. There is the suggestion that the community, for a significant time, has engaged in the appointment and election of weak judges and criminal justice officials. The judges and the criminal justice officials, as a result, fail to enforce the laws in the strictly required way. The result is that the criminals are arrested, charged and released. With the lack of efficient law enforcement agencies, the criminals end up committing the same crimes again even before the closing of the previous case.
The future of law enforcement is likely to be characterized by better-structured law enforcement agencies. It is also likely to be characterized by a better delivery of criminal justice procedures. With regards to the predictive policing that focusses in the determination of future crimes before they occur, there is the assumption that the police will be able to predict and prevent crime (Shapiro, 2018). Also, with the rise of the various eras of policing and what they denote, there would be increased efficiency in law enforcement. The principles of the reformation era would be efficient in ensuring that the necessary police reforms are put into place. The operation of the police department will be focused on delivering the expected mandate. The community policing will be essential in assisting the law enforcers in fostering cooperation with the public. As a result, the public would act in helping in the policing process, resulting in the creation of better results.
The main aspect that could present a challenge to the future of law enforcement entails the elements of globalization and digitalization. As the law enforcement agencies would seek to determine better ways of dealing with the sector, it is possible that the criminals would also utilize the loopholes caused by digitalization and globalization to discover ways of countering the law enforcement agencies. Determining ways of dealing with the newly established mechanisms of the criminals could take time for the law enforcers.
While the police engage in the rigorous process of law enforcement, the public has an inherent role of cooperating with the police to increase the positive engagement of the society and the police. The cooperation of the public and the police would be essential in facilitating better relations. Through the relationships created, the two groups would ensure that they mitigate the use of globalization and digitalization as ways of promoting crime. The public has the responsibility of reporting suspicious behaviours on internet users that could lead to or foster crime. Also, the developers of technological devices have the obligation of using their expertise to limit and prevent crimes. The developers could create technological devices in ways that could detect and register criminal activities. As a result, law enforcement agencies could have better ways of locating criminals and lawbreakers.
Fetters, C. (2018). A Three-Pronged Approach to Improving Leadership Within Law Enforcement.
Lumb, R., & Metz, G. (2019). Understanding Police Organizational Transition to Community Policing and Beyond. Linked In.
Shapiro, A. (2018). Review of Ferguson’s The Rise of Big Data Policing: Surveillance, Race, and the Future of Law Enforcement. Surveillance & Society, 16(1), 123-126.