Models of Scientific Method: Visual Models

Scientific method is a process in which an experiment is done and the results observed to answer a particular question. There are several models of scientific research, including the classical model, computer models, visual models, logical empiricism, pragmatic model, and mathematical models among others (Maurer, 2004; Taper & Lele, 2004). I will focus on the visual models. Visual models can be used to describe concepts or details that are otherwise too small or too big for the eyes to see. They include pictures, diagrams and flowcharts.

The first step involves recognizing a problem where the researcher identifies a question or a problem that requires background research. This question answers the how, when, where, what, which and who? (Blystone & Blodgett, 2006). An example of a problem would be how Covid-19 has affected human services. The second step is doing a background research where scientists use the internet, library, journal, and articles to come up with a plan on how to answer the question (Blystone & Blodgett, 2006). The third step is formulating a hypothesis where the researcher makes an assumption of the outcome based purely on reasoning other than evidence. The hypothesis should be able to help a scientist answer the original question. For instance, a lot of human services have been affected by Covid-19 because of the closure of many businesses and the major restrictions imposed.

Fourth step involves doing an experiment on the hypothesis by doing a text on whether the hypothesis is true or false. The text should be fair and this means that only the independent variable changes and all other constants should remain the same (Bhattacherjee, 2012). The experiments should be repeated severally to check whether the results are still the same. Fifth step is analyzing data and drawing a conclusion (Bhattacherjee, 2012). When the experiment is complete, the scientist collects all the data and analyzes it to see whether the hypothesis is true or false. If the results turn out to be false, then the scientists will formulate another hypothesis.

The sixth and final step is where the results are communicated to other people via a final report. Professional scientists communicate their results by publishing it in scientific journals or presenting the same during a scientific meeting. A display board or a poster can also be used to communicate findings by a scientist. The steps in scientific science aim at developing questions, collecting data and reaching conclusions which are important when conducting social science research. Although steps in the different models might vary, they ultimately seek to find solutions to a particular scientific problem, and each step is equally important (Gauch Jr. & Gauch, 2003). Omitting any one step affects the outcomes, usually in an adverse, thus undermining the reliability of the end results.

The articles I choose are very relevant to my final project because I shall use them as sources for my research. These articles provide relevant information that I can use before, during and even after my final project. Both articles relate significantly to my topic of choice as they have covered the various aspects of scientific method in social science research.




Bhattacherjee, A. (2012). Social sciences research: Principles, methods, and practices. Florida: Florida University Pres.

Blystone, R. V., & Blodgett, K. (2006). WWW: The scientific method. CBE Life Sciences Education5(1), 7–11.

Gauch Jr, H. G., & Gauch, H. G. (2003). Scientific method in practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Maurer, B. A. (2004). Models of scientific inquiry and statistical practice: Implications for the structure of scientific knowledge. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Taper, M., & Lele, S.R. (2004). The nature of scientific evidence: statistical, philosophical, and empirical considerations. Chicago: Chicago Scholarship Online.

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