The equipment used in this lab simulation were:
Resistors in series
|Resistors||R1 and R2||R1,R2 and R3||R1,R2,R3 and R4|
|Current A||0.13 A||0.07 A||0.04 A|
|Voltage V||3.55V and 6.38 V||1.86v,3.38v and 4.86v||1.21v,2.16,3.10, 3.49|
As seen from the data gathered from the simulation, when the resistors are in series the current through the circuit remains the same and the voltage changes in each resistor.
Resistors in parallel Data table
|Resitors||R1 and R2||R1,R2,R3||R1,R2,R3,R4|
|Voltage v||10 v||10 v||10 v|
|Current A||0.35, 0.20||0.35,0.20, 0.13||0.35,0.20,0.13,0.12|
From the data gathered in the parallel circuit, Voltage remained the same throughout the simulation, only the current changed as the resistors were being added
Procedure 1, series Circuits
Equivalent resistance in series = R1+R2…..R4
Calculation for Equivalent resistance for R1 and R2
Equivalent resistance (series) = R1+R2
27+48.5 = 75.5Ω
Calculation for Equivalent resistance for R1, R2 and R3
Calculation for Equivalent resistance for R1, R2, R3 and R4
Procedure 2, Parallel Circuits
Equivalent resistance in parallel = 1/R1 + 1/R2….R4
Calculation for equivalent resistance for R1 and R2
1/27 + 1/48.5= 0.06 Ω
Calculation for equivalent resistance for R1, R2 and R3
Calculation for equivalent resistance for R1,R2, R3 and R4
Procedure 3, Series- Parallel Circuits
Equivalent resistance= R1+R2+R4+1/R3
The three resistors, R1,R2 and R4 are in series while R3 is parallel to the rest.
Procedure 4 series-Circuits
Equivalent resistance= 1/(R1+R3+R4)+1/R2
E= 1/174.5 +1/48.5= 0.026Ω
The experimental simulation was a success, the data measured were to near perfect to the calculated data using Ohm’s law. In the series circuit the current always remained the same in each resistor. Addition of a resistor the circuit reduces the current flowing in the circuit but it is evenly distributed to each resistor. In series the resistance is added directly as the current is the same and only voltage varies thus:
Vtotal= V1+ V2+V3…..
Current is equal so;
I(R)= I(R1+R2+R3…), current cancels out.
On the other hand, in a parallel circuit, the voltage is the same and the current varies in each resistor. Addition of another resistor will increase the total current in the circuit. Also, addition of a resistor in the circuit does not affect the current in individual resistors unlike in the series circuit. Calculating resistance in a parallel circuit is done by adding the reciprocals of the individual resistors. This formula works because the voltage in the circuit is the same and only the current changes.
Itotal = I1+I2+I3….
V/Rt = V (1/R1+1/R2+1/R3) ….. V cancels out.
1/Rt = 1/R1+1/R2+1/R3……
For the last simulation the equivalence resistance was calculated by determining the resistors in series and the ones in parallel. Afterwards the formulas derived above were used to determine the Equivalent resistance of the circuit.