The formation of natural physical structure on the earth is contributed by internal and external land forming processes. The external land forming process operates on the earth’s exterior, while the internal land forming process operates on the planet’s interior. This paper will focus on the internal and external land forming processes involved in Gland Canyon, Mauna Loa, Popocatepetl, and the Sierra Nevada. Gland Canyon is a natural canyon; a canyon is a narrow, deep valley with steep sides. The most famous canyon in the river canyon, the water pressure of the river cuts deep into a river bed, creating a deep, narrow channel. Weathering and erosion and tectonic uplift also contribute to the formation of Gland Canyons.
Volcanism is the internal land forming process at work in both Mauna Loa and Popocatepetl. Volcanism is the eruption of molten rock onto the earth’s surface, where volcanic gases, lava, and pyroclastic erupt through a vent (Siebert et al., 2015). Magma from the lower crust rises through its crust towards the earth’s surface. When magma reaches the earth’s surface, its deportment hangs on the viscosity of the molten rock. Aspects of volcanism include; intrusions, earthquakes, volcanoes, volcanic winter, and hydrothermal vents.
Faulting and glacier are some internal and external land forming processes at work in the Sierra Nevada. Glaciers exposed the granite and formed cliffs and light-colored mountains that make up the range. Glacier is thick ice that is frequently moving under its mass. Elevate developed an extensive range of climates and elevations in the Sierra Nevada. Continues faulting Caused by Tectonic forces creates fault block escarpments along the eastern part of the Sierra Nevada.