Importance of Genome Sequencing in Health Care
Human genome entails the complete sets of DNAs which are approximately three billion base pairs and make up the chromosomes in human beings. The main DNA bases include, thymine (T), cytosine (C), adenine (A) and guanine (G) which create the corresponding organism. Human genome is made up of the various coding regions of both the DNA genes and the non-DNA genes that carry commands used in the production of proteins. The human genome has a collection of the long polymers of the DNA, which are found in duplicate copies with sequences that form the corresponding organism (Venter 2001).
Advantage of Using A Persons’ Genome to Personalize Their Treatment
The human genome has been used widely by researchers for various medical purposes. Significant use of a person’s genome in personalizing treatment is the identification of molecular medicine. Molecular medicine improves the diagnosis of disease, thus preventing the prevalence of diseases by analyzing symptoms in the genes (Katsios and Roukos 2010). The diagnosis is done through personalized sequencing enabling researchers to identify genetic variants hence medical interventions are utilized timely. Genome ensures that personalized prevention treatment offered also prevents the recurrence of a particular disease. Through molecular medicine, the genetic predispositions to a specific disease are detected early, enabling early treatment. Early discovery of diseases ensures that the diagnosis of particular diseases is made accurately as the research has enough time to identify and produce the appropriate treatment. The study of the corresponding organisms fosters the monitoring of someone’s health together with the treatment that they have been offered and tracking of any undying disease.
Personalized sequencing illustrates the occurrence of disease through incorporating coding of the DNA genes and other surrounding factors that contribute to the occurrence of diseases. Genome facilitates the rationing of drugs together with pharmacogenomics, which is the customizations of medicines to treat a particular disease. Researchers use the genome to assess health risks and damages which are caused by exposure to the radiant (Offit 2011). Genetic variants give information on a person’s risk for Alzheimer’s diseases and Parkinson’s diseases. Also, risks caused by exposure to cancer, causing toxins and mutagenic chemicals, are assessed, and researchers can personalize treatment for cancer and associated illnesses. Genome helps in reducing the likelihood of mutations related to heritage. Researchers and medics can identify inherited genes that can cause inherited diseases to stop their mutation. Health assessment through genome is essential as it influences people’s lifestyle where they make more informed choices using the genome knowledge.
Steps for Data Collection for The Genome of England
The department of health in the United Kingdom established the Genome of England, which is a limited company that was enlisted to carry out the Genomes project. The 100,000 Genomes Project is a project that aims at sequencing 100,000 genomes from patients in the National Health Service of the UK. In collecting the genome data, patients willingly took part in the project where they were registered and signed consent form. The first step in the sequencing tests is DNA collection. Participants in the 100,000 genomes project donate their DNA samples at the Genomic medicine centers. The sample is in the form of 5ml blood samples with cancer patients donating a piece of their tumor to collect 100,000 genomes. Next is sequencing, where DNA is done by sequencing machines in short pieces known as reads. The DNA is moved to mapping where the reads are matched to a particular referenced genome sequence through a mapping software (English et al. 2012). The software identifies which genome a read belongs to, respectively. From mapping, the DNA is analyzed by sophisticated software that filters the million different causes of diseases scaling down to possible harmful causes. Any identified causes that illustrate an illness or symptom is presented to the NHS for them to confirm the actual results in their laboratories. Findings from the results, together with any possible implications, are discussed in depth with the patients, and viable solutions are presented.
English, A.C., Richards, S., Han, Y., Wang, M., Vee, V., Qu, J., Qin, X., Muzny, D.M., Reid, J.G., Worley, K.C. and Gibbs, R.A., 2012. Mind the gap: upgrading genomes with Pacific Biosciences RS long-read sequencing technology. PloS one, 7(11).
Katsios, C., and Roukos, D.H., 2010. Individual genomes and personalized medicine: life diversity and complexity. Personalized medicine, 7(4), pp.347-350.
Offit, K., 2011. Personalized medicine: new genomics, old lessons. Human genetics, 130(1), pp.3-14.
Venter, J.C., Adams, M.D., Myers, E.W., Li, P.W., Mural, R.J., Sutton, G.G., Smith, H.O., Yandell, M., Evans, C.A., Holt, R.A. and Gocayne, J.D., 2001. The sequence of the human genome. Science, 291(5507), pp.1304-1351.