Homelessness is categorized into three groups that include primary, secondary, and tertiary. In each of the three categories, individuals encounter different scenarios that contribute towards their housing problems. Primary homelessness describes individuals who are on the streets because of their inability to afford conventional housing options. Many of these people use their cars for temporary housing in their bid to survive the problems that hinder their ability to form healthy relations with individuals. Secondary homelessness defines population groups who are always on the move from one housing option to another. In this category, individuals who seek accommodation from their friends and relatives are considered to be homeless because of their inability to afford the housing options. In the third state of homelessness, people who reside in boarding houses and caravan parks on a long-term basis are believed to be tertiary homeless. From this realization, understanding the causes of homelessness in the U.S. and beyond provides individuals with a deep understanding of the approaches people can use to discover their desired goals and objectives.
Globalization refers to the exchange of different aspects on the global business environment with the hope of creating a system that complements the efforts and input to discover their potential. Importantly, globalization enhances the nature of interactions between individuals because of the increased movements and transfer of goods and services from one region to another. The increased interactions expose nations to a state of interdependence where they rely on each other for survival. Based on the approaches that are used by company managers and political leaders to identify the best interests for their countries, the public expects the identification of certain aspects that can yield positive outcomes, which benefit them. In the economy, globalization creates an enabling business environment where organizations and governments can develop solutions that benefit other countries. The continued expansion and rapid growth of economies affects the perspectives of individuals towards the economic disruption triggered by globalization. Importantly, sociological globalization affects the way people move by exposing them to different scenarios that hinder their ability to overcome situations in their surroundings. Hence, studying how globalization affects housing by causing homelessness exposes individuals to the widening gap between the rich and the poor because of reducing bargaining power among unskilled workers in established nations.
Effects of Globalization
Transfer of Jobs and Investments from Developed Countries to Emerging Economies
Globalization levels the playing field by transferring job opportunities to emerging economies because of the unexploited potential in the host countries. By incorporating technological ideas and offering financial incentives to developing nations, governments in established economies contribute immensely to the scarcity of employment opportunities in their jurisdiction. In this case, foreigners and other qualified personnel claim the jobs, leaving the country with high levels of unemployment because of the measures taken by the government to create a conducive environment that facilitates globalization (Bahr, 2020). Many corporations look out for opportunities to penetrate the emerging economies because of the undefined wage structures and low benefits, which allow them to enhance their profit maximization programs. From this realization, the transfer of jobs creates an employment deficit, which renders many individuals jobless. This unexpected move cripples individuals and exposes them to difficult life situations that hinder them from servicing their mortgages and other aspects associated with the housing structure in the U.S. and beyond.
Alternatively, globalization encourages investors to direct their investments towards the emerging economies because of the unexploited potential that enable them to generate high returns based on their ability to solve problems affecting the natives and other people in their surrounding environment. In many instances, investors make decisions based on the competitive nature of the work environment and its ability to yield positive outcomes that limit the gap between the rich and the poor. In the 1980s, the U.S. witnessed a steady income generated from a consistent investment plan from corporations and individuals. This balance had a significant impact on the perspectives of individuals and their ability to overcome different scenarios that hindered the quality of life experienced by the public. From this realization, the U.S. government should focus on creating a conducive economic environment that supports the changing needs of individuals and understand their contribution towards realizing different outcomes that benefit the people.
However, the national domestic investment levels have sunk even lower in recent times because of the availability of other enabling environments that attract investors by offering them various opportunities they can use to recover their initial investment. The lack of domestic investment hinders economic growth and development because of the widespread stagnation that hinders individuals from accomplishing their desired goals and objectives. Although the domestic investments may have depreciated in value over the years due to aspects such as inflation, the lack of capital and government-owned assets presents an economic challenge that affects the ability of individuals to overcome the challenges, which contribute towards homelessness (O’Neill, 2017). It should be noted that the state of homelessness is triggered by the inability of individuals to achieve the minimum income that can facilitate their home ownership through rental or mortgage solutions. Even though some aspects such as drug and substance abuse may contribute towards homelessness, the lack of an enabling environment where people can achieve their desired goals exposes them to risks and unexpected challenges that interfere with the achievement of sustainable development.
Globalization Imposes Heavy Taxation Rates on the People
Given the roles of corporations and consumers in the business environment, the government develops laws and policies that benefit the people. In this regard, corporations are expected to impose the taxes on the purchasing price of different products and commodities. However, in the wake of globalization, the government appears to tax the people more than corporations, an outcome that has affected the spending power of individuals in their immediate environment. Unlike consumers, corporations can move with ease to different locations with accommodative tax rates that promote their operational performance (Rouverol, 2019). In this regard, many corporations are transferring the heavy taxes imposed on them by the government to the consumers, hindering individuals from spending their income on different commodities of preference. Likewise, the minimum wage rate has significantly declined amidst the high cost of living, which exposes individuals to an environment where they cannot accomplish their desired goals and objectives. Depressed wage rates affect the spending power of individuals and expose them to a wide range of challenges caused by their inability to afford certain outcomes that focus on creating viable solutions, which benefit individuals in their immediate environment.
Globalization Promotes Dependence
Today, if one country collapses, others will closely follow because of the increased interdependence that has become a critical aspect in realizing economic growth and development. Unlike before where governments would develop independent economic policies that were customized to solve their needs, countries now need to consult with other nations before adopting certain strategies that can enhance their overall productivity. In this regard, the increasing interdependence has hindered countries from pursuing their economic paths to overcome issues that hinder them from discovering their potential (Kostić & Mihajlović, 2018). According to historical accounts, many civilizations that started small outgrew their resources and collapsed because of their inability to sustain people’s needs. From this realization, the effects of global warming and climate change witnessed in Australia through the wild forest fires have began manifesting in the global business environment because of the interconnected state of the modern society.
In the 2008 Recession, the world witnessed the reeling effects of globalization because of the increased interdependence between the U.S. and other countries around the globe. Notably, the economic depression exposed the weak links of the financial world and its inability to sustain national growth by rewarding untrustworthy clients who were incapable of servicing their mortgages. The subprime crisis demonstrated the importance of creditworthiness and its impact to the development of critical decisions that benefit individuals in their immediate environment. The 2008 recession was triggered by the housing boom in the early 2000s where lenders sought to make quick returns by issuing uncreditworthy persons with mortgages (Ringmar, 2018). The outcome resulted into a bizarre situation where countries affiliated to the U.S. experienced the adverse effects of the recession, which affected their economic growth and development. Many countries are always affected by the price of the dollar because of its impact on the oil economy. Changes in oil prices expose nations to situations where they experience different problems caused by fluctuations in the U.S. Therefore, globalization exposes countries to a series of problems that could have been avoided through maintaining a state of dependency that promotes economic growth and development.
The Homeless Problem in the U.S.
Many scholars define homelessness as a condition where individuals lack a permanent or regular housing structure that can accommodate them. In 2014, over 1.5 million people were counted as homeless people because of their inability to afford proper housing. However, the number is believed to have gone up with as many as 500,000 people being counted as homeless overnight in 2018. The rising numbers demonstrate the sad state of affairs in the American scene because of the inability of local authorities to put measures in place that can accommodate the changing needs of individuals in their immediate environment (Fusaro, Levy, & Shaefer, 2018). Even though homelessness emerged as a national problem in the 1870s, subsequent governments have failed to provide a lasting solution that can protect the interests of individuals in their immediate environment. The financial crisis of 2007 and the 2008 recession have played a significant role in escalating the number of homeless individuals in the U.S. because of its exposure to a series of problems that hindered people from overcoming challenges in their surroundings.
Over the years, various scholars have attempted to trace the relationship between homelessness and globalization. Importantly, the growth of American cities through the different urbanization programs saw many homeless individuals emerge on the streets of many cities in the early 1870s. Later, more homeless individuals began piling on the streets due to a surge in the states among individuals hoping to secure jobs in the urban areas. Urbanization contributed significantly to the deep-rooted problem of homelessness in the U.S. because of the approach and attitude among individuals to relocate to urban areas with the hope of finding employment opportunities. Today, homelessness is primarily associated with economic challenges that hinder individuals from enjoying life because of their limited ability to accomplish their desired goals and objectives. Despite the government’s intervention through the introduction of different programs, homelessness remains a vital problem that affects different households because of their inability to afford housing among other basic needs.
When Coronavirus was first reported in the U.S., the world had been focused on China and its inability to contain the deadly disease that has since claimed millions of lives around the globe. Given the measures adopted by the government to reduce movements and interactions among individuals, the problem of homelessness came knocking and threatened to expose the lack of preparedness to deal with national crisis situations that affect the ability of individuals to accomplish their desired goals and objectives. Importantly, governors struggled to contain the needs of their constituents while mayors ordered individuals to stay at homes (Morton, Dworsky, Matjasko, Curry, Schlueter, Chávez, & Farrell, 2018). However, many people lack regular shelters that could accommodate them during this period of inactivity declared by the state. Currently, homelessness is linked with the urban life because of the scarce resources, which compel individuals to compete for the few jobs and accept low wages to survive the tough urban areas. Looking at the historical outcomes and the different aspects that hinder individuals from realizing their desired goals and objectives, people are expected to align their ambitions with existing job opportunities that enable them to facilitate the realization of their dreams.
The History of Homelessness in the U.S.
The first wave of American homelessness was reported just after the civil war when the veterans struggled to fit in the community. The process of fitting in the society required the veterans to find formal jobs and permanent housing structures that would create a smooth transition, which allowed them to adjust from the war perspective. In the same vein, individuals who were rescued from captivity were also homeless because of their inability to secure housing and take care of their basic needs at the same time. In response, authorities developed vagrancy laws that encouraged law enforcement officers to arrest people who demonstrated traits of homelessness to restore the urban areas to their previous settings. Structural racism was heavily manifested and facilitated by the discriminatory laws that targeted people of color and other immigrants who had settled in the U.S. Homeless individuals were defined by the unemployability status, leading to the criminalization of poverty in the developed economy. Considering the different approaches that expose individuals to an enabling environment where they can achieve their expected outcomes. From this realization, understanding the history of certain aspects such as homelessness provide individuals with an overview of the appropriate solutions that can be used to accomplish their desired goals and objectives.
Men were mostly the face of homelessness because charity organizations came to rescue women and children. Importantly, religious institutions believed women and children were vulnerable groups because of their inability to survive the tough situations they encountered in the skid rows and the streets. For the next 100 years, the skid rows would accommodate the homeless individuals before they were demolished in the 1960s due to the renovation plans adopted by the government. The new regulations were influenced by the need to reduce the public congestion and the increase in the number of homeless individuals in the American streets. However, the government responded by providing cheap access to single units that could keep families off the streets. The temporary shelters came in handy in improving the people’s quality of life and protecting them from the harsh weather conditions that affect the lifestyles of individuals at night. Later in 1973, the converted units would be demolished to pave way for modern housing that would equip individuals with the opportunity to discover their potential outside the streets.
With the deinstitutionalization of mental health patients and introduction of quality medication to ease their situations, the government developed well-thought policies that catered to the interests of the people. Programs such as Medicaid and Medicare were rolled during this period where the access to quality treatment was defined by the ability of individuals to overcome the situations affecting their quality of life. Even though the ambition of the government was to incorporate the recovered mental patients into the society where they could be productive, it exposed them to different challenges that affected their transition into the society. The approaches used to balance the expectations of the public created more problems that before, which saw the number of homeless individuals increase in the streets. At the moment, jails and prison facilities act as psychiatric institutions where people’s erratic behaviors can be reformed and exposed to an enabling environment that defines their focus towards life.
In the 1980s, the state of homelessness took a different direction that made scholars align their focus with the new definition of the condition. Compared to the 1870s when many of the homeless city dwellers were men, women took the lead a hundred years later, demonstrating a shift in the population demographics. Likewise, the number of African Americans increased exponentially as different individuals failed to generate the requisite income levels that would have enabled them to overcome their immediate problems. Unlike in the 1870s when churches and religious organizations took women and children because of their vulnerability status, every homeless individual now had to find a shelter on their own. Some of the factors that contributed towards the increased population of homeless individuals include mass incarcerations, the AIDS crisis, and drug and substance abuse. Additionally, the revival of urban areas and gentrification of cities contributed significantly towards the inability of individuals to accomplish their desired goals and objectives. Therefore, many people succumbed to depression and other mental health illnesses, which hindered them from responding to the different events taking place in their immediate environment.
Economic Globalization and Homelessness in Japan
Although the rising levels of homelessness in the U.S. has been the focus of many scholars, various researchers have explored the societal problem in other parts of the world. In this regard, Japan is battling with homelessness because of its impact on the country’s economic growth and development. Given the approaches that have been put in place by the Asian country to resolve the societal problem, individuals now have an opportunity to understand the impact of homelessness on social development outside the American scope (Kitagawa, 2020). Japan’s homelessness levels are way lower than those recorded in the U.S., with the country tracking less than 6,000 homeless individuals in 2017. However, many scholars have highlighted the dangerous situation associated with Japan’s homelessness because of its invisibility that hinders policymakers from developing appropriate measures that address the problem. Given the lack of accountability and time taken to trace the homeless people who move often in search of shelter and other basic needs, Japan is experiencing a rising problem that is hindering it from addressing the issue. Therefore, Japan should implement appropriate measures that focus on creating an enabling environment where homeless individuals can be provided with basic amenities that take them away from the streets.
History of Homelessness in Japan
In the 1990s, economic changes in the country exposed many individuals to the state of homelessness because of their inability to resolve issues that hindered them from accomplishing their expected outcomes. Following the end of the Second World War, many individuals enrolled in different job opportunities as casual laborers who would tend to manual jobs to feed themselves (Okamoto, 2016). However, as the economy transitioned into a manufacturing system, many people were left without jobs. The lack of a smooth transition from the casual labor to the manufacturing economy paved way for the emergence of homelessness because of the inability of individuals to sustain themselves.
Alternatively, the sudden shift from manufacturing to a service economy also created an opportunity for the emergence of homelessness, which hindered individuals from discovering their desired outcomes and solutions that affected their quality of life. Besides, young foreign employees flocked Japan and replaced the natives because of their inability to respond to the fast-changing Japanese economy. Unlike the U.S. where the state of homelessness is primarily associated to the AIDS crisis, drug and substance abuse, and mass incarcerations, the state of homelessness in Japan is attributed to globalization where organizations where more willing to work with foreigners than the locals. From this realization, the inability of many Japanese citizens to fit in the new economic systems rendered them jobless and exposed them to a series of challenges, which affected their inability to focus on different aspects that interfered with their ability to achieve their desired outcomes.
Studying how globalization affects housing by causing homelessness exposes individuals to the widening gap between the rich and the poor because of reducing bargaining power among unskilled workers in established nations. In the same vein, understanding the causes of homelessness in the U.S. and beyond provides individuals with a deep understanding of the approaches people can use to discover their desired goals and objectives. From this perspective, examining the relationship between globalization and homelessness exposes individuals to an environment where they can question the nature of policies being drafted by policymakers and their ability to generate sustainable solutions that address the issues affecting people’s lifestyles. Even though globalization has a positive impact on the economy, its negative attributes affect the ability of individuals and economies to create opportunities that can sustain people’s needs. Importantly, many researchers dwell largely on American homelessness and give limited coverage to other states that experience a similar problem. However, continuing research has focused on Japan’s state of homelessness and its inability to cater to the changing needs of individuals. Japan’s homelessness crisis is considered dangerous because of its high invisibility that hinders individuals and government authorities from developing viable solutions that address the people’s needs. Hence, even though globalization contributes towards homelessness, it can be used to develop viable solutions that address the underlying global threat to human existence.
Bahr, E. (2020). The impact of globalization on populations experiencing homelessness. Work, (Preprint), 1-3.
Fusaro, V. A., Levy, H. G., & Shaefer, H. L. (2018). Racial and ethnic disparities in the lifetime prevalence of homelessness in the United States. Demography, 55(6), 2119-2128.
Kitagawa, Y. (2020). Homeless Policy as a Policy for Controlling Poverty in Tokyo: Considering the Relationship between Welfare Measures and Punitive Measures. Critical Sociology, 0896920520921494.
Kostić, M., & Mihajlović, A. (2018). VICTIMIZATION ON THE LABOUR MARKET IN THE PROCES OF GLOBALIZATION. In Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference” Social Changes in the Global World” (Vol. 1, No. 5, pp. 481-499).
Morton, M. H., Dworsky, A., Matjasko, J. L., Curry, S. R., Schlueter, D., Chávez, R., & Farrell, A. F. (2018). Prevalence and correlates of youth homelessness in the United States. Journal of Adolescent Health, 62(1), 14-21.
Okamoto, Y. (2016). Japanese social exclusion and inclusion from a housing perspective. Social Inclusion, 4(4), 51-59.
O’Neill, B. (2017). The space of boredom: Homelessness in the slowing global order. Duke University Press.
Ringmar, E. (2018). Order in a borderless world: Nomads confront globalization. Theorizing Global Order: The International, Culture and Governance, 22, 91.
Rouverol, A. J. (2019). Fragmentary writing and globalization in Ali Smith’s Hotel World. The Poetics of Fragmentation in Contemporary British and American Fiction, 67.
Schoenfeld, E. A., Bennett, K., Manganella, K., & Kemp, G. (2019). More than just a seat at the table: The power of youth voice in ending youth homelessness in the United States. Child Care in Practice, 25(1), 112-125.
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