# Abstract

Electrostatic is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest. In existence, two types of charges exist which is designated as positive and negative charges, and they possess equal and opposite polarity. Coulomb law was develop to describes the forces between the charges, like charges of the same polarity repel while unlike charges attract. The charge always establishes an electric field in spaces around them.

For this study lab, the motion of electrons where protons are held in the crystal lattices is of significance. Graphical display of how electric charges are distributed is also vital.

Induction is a process of charging a neutral body by a charged body by making no any direct contact while conduction is a process of charging s neutral body by a charged body via direct contact. Therefore, conduction results to flow of current due to electric field while induction is the flow of current due to magnetic field.

Conducting objects at electrostatic equilibrium is that the electric fields are strongest at locations along the surface where the object is most curved. The curvature of a surface can range from absolute flatness on one extreme to being curved to a blunt point on the other extreme.

A flat location has no curvature and is characterized by relatively weak electric fields. On the other hand, a blunt point has a high degree of curvature and is characterized by relatively strong electric fields. A sphere is uniformly shaped with the same curvature at every location along its surface. As such, the electric field strength on the surface of a sphere is everywhere the same.

# Procedure one

-At time zero there was no charge separation.

-rubbing white probe static charge distribution was induced and its mean was 39.9 volts

-Removing probe the voltage drop to zero, equilibrium zone (When blue probe is inserted), because the electrons are repelled.

-when both probes are inserted simultaneously there was effect on voltage.

# Procedure 2a

When the white probe was inserted the electrons was attracted

Attraction of probe rendered the voltage change to 5.8

Withdrawing of probe the change was insignificant the charge distribution had voltage of 14.5

# Procedure 2 b

When probe touched the pail the voltage was -37.5 when it was withdrawn the effects were insignificant

When probe was inserted the electrons were repelled the voltage was -12.5

# Procedure 3A

The charge distribution was at equilibrium inserting the probe resulted to electron attraction and mean voltage was 8.2V , when pail is grounded by hand on cages electrons are repelled and charges are withdrawn hence the system gets back to equilibrium position, withdrawing result to charge distribution by induction and electrons are repelled hence negative voltage 0f -10V.

# Procedure 3b

When blue probe is inserted the charge distribution induction resulted to electron repulsion hence voltage shifted to the negative side and voltage was -6.2V with induced voltage being -27V. System was brought to equilibrium by hand and final voltage was 27 after electron attraction.

# Proocedure 4

POINT A 3.8V

POINT B3.81V

POINT C3.5V

INTERIOR VOLTAGE 2.6V

ROUNDED END 3.6V

SHARPER END 5.6V

# CONCLUSION

In the first three procedures, generated a charge distribution by rubbing 2 charge probes, firmly together in an effect known as electrostatic effect, the white probe is positive and blue probe negative this because of the voltage exhibited by each probe after the charge distribution.

Induction charging involves charging without touching the probe while conduction involves charging by touching the probe.

In procedure 4 you have voltages form 3 different points on the surface of a conducting sphere. How close are they? Very close.

Did you expect them to be the same? No

If you take a conducting sphere and put charge on it, the potential, for an instant at least, will not be uniform, and the charges will feel a coulomb force. As all particles must in these cases they move. When does the motion stop? When field generated is perpendicular to the conductor’s surface

What is the potential across the sphere at that time? 0

How are the charges distributed at that time? Radially

Describe how the curvature affects the charge distribution

A flat location has no curvature and is characterized by relatively weak electric fields. On the other hand, a blunt point has a high degree of curvature and is characterized by relatively strong electric fields. A sphere is uniformly shaped with the same curvature at every location along its surface. As such, the electric field strength on the surface of a sphere is everywhere the same.