Discussion Questions

Student Groups Experiencing the Achievement Gap

Students from racial and ethnic minority groups, those with disabilities, and low-income families have a huge achievement gap in the education sector. Olsweski-Kubilius et al. (2004) reveal that the achievement gap in the minority population is one of the significant educational problems in the United States. Learners from these segments lag behind in educational milestones compared to non-minority learners. They often encounter massive discriminative practices that undermine their active engagement in the classroom setting. They report reduced milestones in key elements such as grades, achievement tests, and school attendance and completion. It is vital to create a viable learning environment for all students to accelerate outcomes for the minority groups. The lack of a supportive learning culture leads to low educational milestones for these learners. Poverty is a crucial factor behind the low achievement gap since most of these students have limited resources at their disposal to pay fees and other requirements. Lastly, low educator expectations due to alarming rates of bias and racism accelerate limited educational achievements. Teachers fail to offer vital support for learners from minority segments.

Common Types of Child Behavioral Problems during Middle Childhood

Hyperactivity and conduct problems are key behavioral issues at the middle childhood stage. According to Parkes et al. (2014) these problems pose a significant risk in the development of inappropriate behaviors such as early can generate adverse social vices as they grow up. Thus, it is vital to address these problems to prevent advanced exposure to stern issues. One of the problems affecting children at the middle level is the hyperactive behavior. Some of these behaviors include impulsiveness, failure to concentrate, and aggressiveness. Conduct problems exist as another fundamental behavioral challenge experienced at this stage. The various forms of conduct behavior include fighting, bullying, lying, and truancy, among others. These issues have a higher potential of developing criminal activities such as robbery with violence and theft. Parents should train and educate their children about the dangers associated with these behaviors. Also, they should engage them in various activities that keep them occupied and reduce exposure to these behaviors.





Olszewski-Kubilius, P., Lee, S. Y., Ngoi, M., & Ngoi, D. (2004). Addressing the achievement gap between minority and non-minority children by increasing access to gifted programs. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 28(2), 127-158.

Parkes, A., Waylen, A., Sayal, K., Heron, J., Henderson, M., Wight, D., & Macleod, J. (2014). Which behavioral, emotional, and school problems in middle-childhood predict early sexual behavior? Journal of youth and adolescence, 43(4), 507-527.

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