With the evolution of technology and infrastructure, more has built up on creativity when it comes to architecture as well as urban design. Urban design involves the arrangement of a city’s elements these including, buildings, transport, social facilities, amenities all aimed at fulfilling a city’s purpose effectively as well as making it aesthetically attractive. This is well evident from major cities such as New York, Dubai, Amsterdam amongst other. Their layout is well defined as well as the aesthetic appeal which comes from a view hence giving form and character to a particular town or city which sets out some uniqueness to it. It goes without saying when one views a certain city for instance on a picture one could easily name it from its form and character as with the layout of the various elements of design in it such as buildings or streets. This in that architectural designs ought to incorporate and fulfil both functional and aesthetical purposes in their designated area of application. In regards to meeting the functional purposes, architectural and urban designs should encompass both the current needs as well as the speculated future needs. It in conjunction to enhance or allow for any changes there maybe or that may pop in the future to allow for more functionalities, advancements or efficiency in their stipulated use. When it comes to aesthetics, architectural and urban designs ought to have been inspired by some certain phenomena which is referred as the source of inspiration for any design. It is therefore a key aspect to setting some originality and uniqueness to a design and how different feature of designed have been incorporated to meet or serve their specific purposes in the chosen setting. It can be mentioned that some designs are inspired by birds, geographical phenomena, shapes. Therefore, this paper seeks to analyze how the current and future context or urban and
Figure 1 Site Analysis Sample in Amsterdam (Source: Youtube)
Figure 2 Urban Planning (Source: Behance)
architectural designs maybe influenced by their setting, needs as well as emerging practices in the industry.
Contextualization and Literature Review
As a matter of emerging practices, new developments have emphasized and prompted to change of architectural methods as they were being applied earlier on. In this case, Urban design has contributed to many roles that have positively influenced architectural designs. With a vivid outline of the history of urban designs as viewed from how urbanization started and what were the influential factors that led to growth of different urban settings, one can understand the different trends that have been as well as the current setting of urban designs. It can therefore also be used to predict the future changes that will arise in regards to emerging practices and needs (Lang, 2001).
In the middle ages of industrial revolution, there were several ongoing inventions that were launched then. Such included the invention of motor vehicles, railroads as well as railway terminus. This prompted the growth of small centers where the workers would reside in due course of their work either on railway construction or setup industries (Stamps, 1993). Such settings were characterized by elements such as factories, railways, railroad terminus, bus stations, mining sites and human settlement zones. As growth continued, the need to set up administrative centers within the localities came to being. These would include local authorities such as municipality and civic buildings (Kim, 2009). With continuous settlement of people within same zone, the need to set up social facilities and amenities such as schools, restaurants and hospitals came to be. This occurred on a repeat pattern as prompted by the progress in construction of highways, or railroads. A combination of all these elements within a particular setting, would develop a framework which was
Figure 3 Architectures Urban Design (Source: Pinterest)
Figure 4 Architecture and Urban Design (Source: spa.ac.in)
referred to as an urban design hence the term urban centers. Different frameworks would be embraced depending on different setting as influenced by factors such as geographical features of a place as well as the activities that were being carried out at a particular setting (Rode, 2006). These designs could be embraced and applied in other different set ups that would be influenced by similar factors. This was the origin of Urban design as towns grey to become city centers with different functionalities with frameworks that served effectively for the functionality of the different activities that took place in the specific setting (Stamps, 1997).
With the trend, Urban design principles were later achieved so as to guide how an urban place could be planned in terms of architecture. In this case, urban design principles dictates how the physical environment will be arranged in regards to utilization of space to accommodate different features such as: Placement of buildings, the space in between buildings (streets) to allow for accessibility and convenience, the location of social facilities such as halls, public grounds, administrative setups, transport systems such as highways, airports and railway roads. All these is supposed to be arranged in a framework that fulfills the needs of use or functionality as well as making a place to look attractive. It is therefore sound to validate the fact that Urban design conclusively embraces environmental responsibility to making a place economically viable for use, establishing definite infrastructure as well as merging the gap in regards to infrastructure and other related disciplines. As it will be analyzed on the current emerging practices and how they will influence the future of architecture and urban design, this paper will also illustrate how urban design positively influences and benefits architecture.
However, despite the fact that Urban design is designated to merge the gap between
Figure 5 Factory for Urban living Exhibition (Source: Projectarchitecture.com)
Figure 6 Paradigm Architecture Urban Design (Source: paradigmarc.com)
architecture and related fields, there still remains a huge gap between the two. This is where urban design is neglected as a component in the architectural education. As prompted by the emerging practices in the field of architecture as well as the speculated future needs, it is of key significance to consider the inclusivity of Urban design as a major factor in upbringing informed architectural designers and information on how to handle these contingencies that are arising due to economical, ecological and cultural complexities (Beer, 1983). As a way of sustaining these contingencies in architectural frameworks and designs, Urban design is therefore overseen to influence a probable future in design perspectives. It is also driven by that at the current time there are many developments such as technology and need for better innovations to perform more effectively. Such may be seen in different situations such as. In the olden days, plans would land only on airports. However, in the current age emerging practices such as incorporation of helipads on top of buildings to enable landing and taking off of aircrafts needs to be effectively planned about (Kim, 2009). The therefore is a vivid illustration of how significant urban design will influence the future demands of Architecture.
Description, Analysis & Interpretation
Urban design merges with architecture on the course of built and functional urban environment. As compared to Architecture, Urban design comes in as a sibling profession. However, its emergence and necessity has been stipulated by the current trends in architectural context which are stipulated to be sole determinants of how future architectural designs will be executed and to what level of success. They are mainly focused on reshaping urban places and giving a better environment for economic practice, administration as well as human settlement alongside other functions of an urban place (Kim, 2009). In that with the
Figure 7 Urban Planning Sample City (Source: Obermeyer)
Figure 8 Urban Design Las Vegas Masterplan (Source: Archpaper.com)
rapid growth of urban cities, they are the source providers for other towns within a country or a state as most of functions including administrative, business, education and leisure are mainly located in urban areas. It therefore vivid to validate the proposition that most of the architectural projects are based within urban centers but they totally rely on urban design for their success at large (Rode, 2006).
For Instance, Urban designing in the United States is being executed at large scale to allow for maximization of profits to the developers. It follows the needs of urban designing comes as a demand with the development plans being laid yearly. For instance, lately the United States under the leadership of Trump proposed to build industries within different cities in the states to minimize the rate at which products are being imported from external countries e.g. China. It was also as a way of creating more job vacancies for the U.S citizens. Such can be considered as an emerging practice of centralizing all manufacturing and processing of goods which will stimulate the setup of factories (Kim, 2009).
Now in regards to Urban Design and architecture, these projects need to be undertaken in the most effective way considering factors like environmental safety, minimal pollution, location within urban areas. It therefore calls for high edge skilled urban designing so as to determine the correct fixtures such as setting up of Industrial zones where the industries will be located, deciding for settlement zones where workers in the industries can settle and access conveniently (Rosenthal & Rosnow, 1991). Also in regards to past occurrences such as sound, water and air pollution, this will call for adequate planning to accessorize on architectural designs that will minimize or help house technology that emits less or no pollution (Rode, 2006). This can be coined as a future demand of a clean environment, pollution free
Figure 9 Sustainable Urban Planning (Source: sustainabilitymatters)
as well as a rich economy. All these are aimed at achieving a better architectural realm through the designed processes established as design rules.
The two contexts rely on each other in that architectural designs are focused on buildings while urban planning is focused on designing the spaces in between the buildings. Urban designs also aim at reshaping a place but keeping in conservation its culture and history (Rode, 2006). With these being said, its well evident from remarkable landmarks that signify the history and cultures of a particular country. For instance, the statue of Liberty located on the New York harbor signifies some history on when U.S attained independence. Such is an art of work that it not only reserves the culture and history but also adds an aesthetical appeal to the urban design of New York city. Other may include; Tower of babel, Mau Mau sculpture in the city of Nairobi. All this help add value to the architectural framework within a city as they are located between buildings (Velibeyoglu, 2002). As a matter of aesthetics, it therefore sets distinction to a city and also adding an inclusive purpose such as tourist attractions. There in regards to shaping the future context by appraising urban design and architecture, it’s important to weigh of what the current fixtures influence as an emergent trend and how that trend would be shaped to affect the future positively (Kim, 2019).
Perception and patterns of living in places change with time. This may be analyzed with different generations that leave school, and settle in accordance of their income. In that high income settle at particular places, middle income the same too and low income likewise. It is therefore certain that they change and adapt for new trends and fit to the emerging practices. Therefore, when planning for the future, Urban design analysis is a key element to put into consideration when it comes to putting up architectural setups. This
Figure 10 Sustainable urban Extension (Source: adamarchitecture)
Figure 11 Combining Landscape and design (Source: ksd-la.com )
goes with the fact that urban designing allows even for complexity (Kim, 2019).
Of what may be typically viewed a current problem that the future realm of architecture needs to solve, is proper management of the external environment so as to allow for other purposes within architectural frameworks. In the future architects need to have knowledge on how to plan for these without just putting up buildings and forgetting the efficiency brought about caring for the culture of a particular place. The first important aspect is how to scale up for land irrespective of its geographical topography. By incorporating complexity of all activities within a certain environment. For example, sewer lines, garbage collection and dumping sites. Determining future amenities that may be set up within a locality may help to secure land for that hence scaling up accordingly (Lang, 2001).
Urban design also brings in the fact of effective engagement of space with the already existing context. For instance, along set up blocks, the space in between them could be utilized for car parking, setting up tuck-shops, and fast food outlets. In regards to what the future calls for, embracing urban design may also help to discover ineffective strategies that may have been executed and bringing incompetency as a result. Such has been witnessed even with the demolition of buildings that were probably planned for the wrong way or built at the wrong places. Surrounding environs may also be put into good use through planning for features like; Residential places, restaurants and hotels, parking lots and building of malls (Kim, 2019).
As described above, the future needs to break to a world of creativity to embrace new ideas and embracing them. This is in conjunction of reshaping cities infrastructure and architectural frameworks. In the past, most of the architectural frameworks have only been designed to meet functional purposes only.
Figure 12 Home Design and Architecture (Source: Freshome)
Figure 13 Urban Planning and Design (Source: kuipercompagnons)
E.g. If it’s an administrative building, it’s only been designed to accommodate for the designated tasks only (Rode, 2006).
However, with globalization and the advancements in technology, architects ought to resolve in designing future buildings as more independent and super hubs that can run efficiently. Such would include allowing for creativity and innovation to handle complexities. Such include centralization of related operations within same architectural framework while allowing for diversity within other set frameworks (Velibeyoglu, 2002). For instance, no instance to have two buildings close to other within a city whose functions are co-related while they would all be incorporated in one building considering a better architectural framework that supports both. Such may include set up of a satellite center to receive and disseminate data signals within the same building as a news broadcasting station rather than having a news broadcasting station on one building and a satellite station on another (Booth, 1983). This is where the future aims for a more satisfying and self-sufficient stations. Into the architectural framework, improved means such as lift car parking, office to office lifts and elevators, sound proof systems and security systems fall as a major consideration to be put onboard (Kim, 2019).
In my opinion, it all starts from the human senses. These include sight, hearing, touching, taste, to smelling. With these basics, it is a directive perspective of what Urban design and architecture can influence positively to the future considering the current setting. Foremost, to foster more architectural and urban development, countries must consider what they have to invest in or what they can harness to achieve that. As mentioned earlier, good sights such as unique landmarks create good vicinity which may not only attract tourists but also business investors. For instance, the statue of liberty which is on the shores on New York and its historically known
Figure 14 Architectural sketching (Source: arch2o.com)
as a gift of France to the U.S.A acts as a symbol of good ties between the two (Kim, 2019).
Through symbolizing good ties between the two nations, Investors from U.S.A may feel free to invest in France and vice versa. The vicinity may also act as a tourist attraction that may spark someone’s decision to visit New York and end up investing there (Talen, 2003). What am driving at is in the future, architectural designers need to arrive at frameworks that not only meet the stipulated range of functionality but also good looking and creative designs that are cordial and inviting to whomever is associated in dealing within the setting (Kim, 2019). Such may include a building with great designs. For example: A Navy building center that built on a geographical location away from the sea emulating the design of a submarine. An aviation center emulating the design of bird’s wings. An ocean research center designed with the shape of a shark. All these are forms of creativity that would be embraced and used to influence transformation in the contextual Urban design and architectural design setting (Velibeyoglu, 2002).
In efforts to close this gap between Urban Design and Architecture designs, reports have earlier been complied in request for more collaboration in the academic training between architectural education and Urban design education. This raises concern in that Urban design is highly neglected as a course and its given less attention as compared to these other courses related to architecture. To back up this request propositions have been raised to in support that it could benefit architects if only the curriculum was much more expanded to allow for urban considerations including culture, geographical position, transport network and context (Rode, 2006). In this context studies shows that school culture is somehow intimidating and ends up enclosing students in the daily routine and norm with less out of school practice. As a
Figure 15 Urban Apartments Design Sample (Source: inhabitat.com)
Figure 16 Urban Planning Sample Archives (Source: bermelloajamil)
result, there is less exposure and retention of the old ideas which do limit the level of creativity embraced in the execution of ideas (Gans, 1974). Therefore, as a way of upbringing architects who will have a vision on what to do fourth in the future in regards to meeting the future needs and demands, it calls for involvement in out of school projects especially involvement in urban planning. This is as reported by Webster that values applied while in practice of architecture differ a lot with those of that are learnt in school (Kim, 2019).
Therefore, in a future context with the emerging needs as prompted by limitations in studies, demographic diversity should be embraced more. In that when you learn and understand your environment, then you probably understand better on how to improve it for the better (Velibeyoglu, 2002).
So as to achieve distinctions in the future contextual setting, Urban design brings with its better capabilities as compared to architecture. Creating a cordial and desirable environment, it takes them to break through the creative world by considering all aspects that may influence either directly or indirectly (Rode, 2006). Its therefore a complex process in different phases but can be broken down so as it can be easy to manage and control. Unlike architecture, Urban design has a range of diverse tools which may be effectively harnessed to process these complexities. First of all is that Urban design is easier to lender in the grounding process as compared to architecture (Portphillip, 2019). With urban design, complexity will be handled easily giving attention to each piece of detail. Urban design lends itself better than architecture to the grounding process (Kim, 2019).
The future realm of architecture will also be highly influenced by the ability to manage and process information on different variables which will be achievable through
Figure 17 Urban Design (Source: inhabitat.com)
embracing Urban designing. This is as opposed to the current context where architecture mainly relies on single-building perspectives. These is prompted by the certainty where advancement in technologies happens from day to day building up more complexity even in design details and demand (Kim, 2019). A good example is that in the future, tourist hotels may need more fancy architecture in order to beat competition. Some may even need helipads installed on roof tops so as to allow for landing and taking of aircrafts. To detect information signals from space there may be need to set up mini stations at the top to as a way of enhancing significant factors like communication, security monitoring and real time responses two and floor. To set a five-star experience hotel in the future may need a whole new realm invested in architecture as well as urban designs (Velibeyoglu, 2002). Instead of reinvesting all again in new buildings and architectural frameworks, Urban design makes this achievable through reinstallation of what has already been set to place (Hernandez & Hidalgo, 2005). This is through shaping it. Improving abandoned opportunities. Using the external surroundings spaces in between buildings as well as surrounding environs.
As noted from the discussions held above its vivid that urban design embraces a natural discipline in execution of designs. Therefore, its valid to propose that by embracing urban design at large when handling projects will safeguard the safety of our environs in the future as well as being pollution free. This in consideration that in the current setting it’s a big demand of having occupants of a certain geographical setting live in a healthy, sustainable environment that is
nature friendly. This is a major compelling challenge at the moment as most urban areas are characterized by noise pollution from moving machinery like trains and vehicles, air pollution and adverse climate condition due to the deteriorated environment.
Figure 18 Hillside Housing (Source: inhabitat.com)
Figure 19 Modern Property Designs (Source: dmproperties.com)
As a remedy for this which is a huge uprising for the future wellness, groundwork ought to be observed as it has been illustrated by embracing urban designing (Lang, 2001).
In conclusion, the significance of incorporating both urban and architectural designs in a futuristic perspective may be summed up into their projective merits which: Modify the natural environment without changing it in that it seeks to better the quality of the already existing context without any form of distortion involved. This therefore ensures safety of the future environment and guaranteeing a comfortable place for future inhabitants to dwell. Secondly, it wraps up international competition from other countries in regards that despite the structure’s setup within a certain region, what matters most is the external appearance and environment. To add on this point, its Urban designing that adds value to urban areas. Finally, by retaining both social and cultural values, it serves as a major factor for attracting investors, visitors and settlers who opt for settling within the regions. Some may even want to go and study within such a locality. Hence without emphasizing on the commercial trap as embraced by other perspectives, architecture and urban designs are a resourceful form of inclusion, experiencing a new different culture, getting to learn new ways of life and later leading to investment ideas within the area of settlement.