Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a category of medicine that incorporates various treatment methods that fall outside the scope of allopathic medicine. Complementary medicine refers to an unconventional medicine used alongside conventional treatments, while alternative medicine is used as a substitute to conventional medicine. Examples of CAM include yoga, hypnosis, chiropractic therapy, ayurvedic, acupuncture, and dietary supplements.
Describe the Patient Who Uses CAM the Most
Patients who mostly use complementary and alternative medicine often supplement their conventional treatment. Patients cite varying reasons for their use, such as unmet medical needs and barriers to obtaining conventional medication. The patients view CAM as patient-centered and holistic in reinforcing health in terms of body, mind, and spirit (Knecht, Kinder, & Stockert, 2020). Besides, the accessibility and increased patient autonomy also lead to the use of the treatment. In the contemporary world of healthcare, patients who are not covered by health insurance cite the increasing cost of medication as a factor in using CAM treatment. Patients with chronic illnesses use CMA treatment to lessen the side effects of medication and improve quality of life.
List Some Common Misconceptions About CAM
There are several misconceptions regarding the use of CAM. One common misconception is that CAM treatments and conventional treatments are mutually exclusive. The misconception is that CAM is only used as an alternative to and to the exclusion of conventional medicine while, in essence, it complements conventional care. Another misconception is that CAM treatment, mainly natural and herbal supplements are safe as government agencies in charge of health have vetted them (Grieselhuber, Kodner, Brown, & Yu, 2017). This is misleading since the U.S Federal Drug Administration agency does not approve most herbal remedies. Alternative medicine is also taunted as ineffective, which is false since it has been validated via clinical trials. Another myth is that low-income people only use it as a form of voodoo since they have no access to conventional medicine. Misconceptions regarding CAM also affect health care professionals who view its use as a last resort while the general population associates the treatment with immigrants and Native people.
Identify Methods of Including the Use of CAM in Patient Education
Healthcare professionals should have open discussions with patients during medical reconciliations regarding the use or intention to use alternative medicine. The healthcare professional should assess any possible interaction of pharmaceutical drugs and herbal remedies and follow up with patients. Patients ought to be educated to make informed choices regarding their continuation of alternative medicine (Wode, Henriksson, Sharp, Stoltenberg, & Nordberg, 2019). Patients can be also be informed on how to complement conventional medicine with CAM to address health issues as research has shown some positive results in the use of some types of CAM to prevent the development of health conditions. Nurses’ ought to consider patient’s economic constraints and cultural preferences and offer sound advice on the best available options as they are well informed on integrating alternative medicine. Nurses should educate patients to evaluate the difference between over-the-counter drugs and alternative medicines regarding regulations and approval. Healthcare professionals should support decisions made by the patients regarding the type of treatment they prefer but should also table all facts regarding different alternative methods. There should also be cautious regarding fraudulent marketing of alternative medicines since most lack scientific data to support their claims, often resulting in testimonials.
Discuss the Safe Use Of CAM
Safety protocols are a prerequisite in determining the use of complementary and alternative medicine. Mind and body practices are considered to be generally safe when conducted appropriately. However, the notion of natural products such as herbal medicines to be safe is false. There are two main concerns regarding dietary supplements; drug interaction and product contamination (Binns, Lee, & Lee, 2018). Manufacturers of natural products are exempted from proving the safety and efficacy of supplements before they are made public. There is also limited research on the use of dietary supplements and herbs. Conventional medicine such as over-the-counter drugs is only made public when the FDA proves its efficacy in treating the indicated conditions. Supplement quality is also an issue where there is product contamination. There is very little oversight in the manufacture of alternative medicine, thus labeling false information on dietary supplement containers. Herbal products distributed in capsule form lack similar controls and indications as conventional medicine. CAM is readily available over the counter; thus, patients assume they are safe as conventional medicines. Herbal remedies can interfere with conventional drugs leading to side effects such as weakening the conventional medicines.
List Ways in Which Conventional Medicine and CAM Can Be Integrated
Conventional medicine and alternative medicine can be integrated through implementing guidelines regarding healthcare systems and medical education programs. The recognition of complementary health care into all aspects of health, such as drug policy, leads to integration with conventional medicine. The integration of CAM into health policies can enhance holistic care and fill therapeutic gaps existing in conventional care. Healthcare professionals are better placed to initiate the integration of CAM and conventional medicine. The healthcare system should integrate CAM training and practice to ensure proper regulation. Healthcare professionals should be trained on theoretical and practical CAM; thus, only qualified personnel are allowed to practice to minimize exposure to unsafe practices.
Define Ethical Theories, Ethical Principles, and Values
Ethical theories refer to the study of systems to understand moral concepts and justify well-defined standards of right and wrong. Ethical principles involve the normative theory that critically examines standards of morality to ensure the right conduct in nursing practice. Ethical principles provide a structured framework regarding the moral conduct of healthcare professionals. Values refer to basic individual beliefs that guide and motivate personal attitudes and actions. They are a result of individual characteristics and preferences.
Provide Examples of Ethical Issues in Patient Education and Compliance, and Describe Ways in Which an Effective Professional/Patient Relationship and a Poor Health Professional/Patient Relationship Can Impact These Issues
There are numerous ethical challenges in patient education and compliance in healthcare, such as conflict of interests, patient’s rights, and confidentiality. Conflict of interest is highlighted where healthcare professionals and patients differ on treatment methods, thus leading to bias as healthcare providers attempt to persuade patients on the best treatment. Patient’s rights are thus invoked in dire situations where the patient has autonomy on the medical treatment. Doctor-patient confidentiality is also another issue in patient education where healthcare professionals are responsible for keeping the patient’s records private (Murtaza, Ali, Shahbaz, & Elger, 2021). Besides, the conversations between physicians and patients are strictly confidential. An effective professional/patient relationship will respect the fiduciary relationship and trust of the patient, thus creating a conducive environment for improved health benefits. A poor professional/patient relationship leads to boundary and ethics violations that negatively impact a patient’s confidentiality and rights.
Explain What Is Meant By “Ethical Patient Education Practices
Ethical patient education practices entail how healthcare professionals disseminate information to patients aimed at improving their health status while applying required ethical considerations. This enables patients to access impartial information and ensures transparency and confidentiality in the process. These practices also allow health professionals to delineate information and agree on available options essential in the treatment process while patients make informed decisions.
Explain the purpose of Informed Consent
The purpose of informed consent is to protect the patient since it is a valid legal document that proves an ongoing communication between patients and healthcare professionals. The document shows the patient presented with all relevant facts regarding his health status in choosing an appropriate treatment method. The facts include; the diagnosis and prognosis of the condition, the recommended treatment method, alternative of a given intervention, benefits, and associated risks (Slim & Bazin, 2019). Informed consent gives patients control over any treatment procedure since the final decision rests with the patient.
Discuss What Factors Determine the Patient’s Ability to Give Informed Consent
The ability to give informed consent is subject to the voluntary nature of the patient’s decision to give explicit consent without coercion or under duress. The patient must also have the capacity to make decisions. The patient’s competency to make decisions is waived in situations where a patient is incapacitated. There is a life-threatening emergency, where there is limited time to obtain consent, and where a psychiatrist waives the capacity. The patient must also comprehend the relevant facts related to the condition, such as risks, benefits, and alternatives.
Compose A Sample Informed Consent Form
Discuss the Process of Communication to Use with The Patient and The Family When Obtaining Informed Consent
The process of communication begins with establishing a rapport in a setting free from distractions. The healthcare professional then proceeds to explain the reasons behind the meeting and asks for permission to continue the discussion. The healthcare professional proceeds to gather information regarding the patient’s perceptive and then present the relevant facts about the patient’s condition, clinical research, and alternative treatments. Ultimately, the medical practitioner asks for permission to continue with the discussed treatment by signing the informed consent document.
Binns, C. W., Lee, M. K., & Lee, A. H. (2018). Problems and prospects: public health regulation of dietary supplements. Annual review of public health, 39, 403-420.
Grieselhuber, N. R., Kodner, I. J., Brown, D., & Yu, J. (2017). Confronting the therapeutic misconception. Surgery, 162(1), 183-187.
Knecht, K., Kinder, D., & Stockert, A. (2020). Biologically-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use in Cancer Patients: The Good, the Bad, the Misunderstood. Frontiers in nutrition, 6, 196.
Murtaza, M. M., Ali, S., Shahbaz, W., & Elger, B. S. (2021). Doctor-patient confidentiality: a cross-sectional study of opinions among medical students and doctors. Discoveries Reports, 4, e16.
Slim, K., & Bazin, J. E. (2019). From informed consent to shared decision-making in surgery.
Wode, K., Henriksson, R., Sharp, L., Stoltenberg, A., & Nordberg, J. H. (2019). Cancer patients’ use of complementary and alternative medicine in Sweden: a cross-sectional study. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 19(1), 1-11.