Common Diseases Of The Reproductive System: Pathophysiology Essay

Endometriosis

Endometrium refers to the mucous layer lining the interior of the uterus. It consists of the uterine section that experiences alterations throughout the menstrual cycle. Endometriosis refers to the existence of endometrial glands and stroma in ectopic sites, or locations other than the anterior of the uterus (Yun et al. 2016). The locations include the ovaries pelvic, peritoneum, and the rectovaginal septum. It entails an inflammatory, estrogenic disease in the case that the ectopic implantations create an inflammatory response that could cause scar tissues. Bleeding during the menstrual cycle results in inflammation, which activates chemokines cytokines, growth factors, and protective factors to move to the area. The result of the inflammation includes adhesions, scarring, fibrosis, and pain. It can also cause excessive pelvic pains and infertility in women.

There is no unifying theory that elaborates on the origin of endometriosis. However, several theories attempt to identify its origin. Among the theories include Sampson’s theory. The theory suggests that the endometrial cells travel via the fallopian tubes into the abdomen. The theory, however, is not conclusive as a majority of women experience retrograde menstruation, and only a few of them develop endometriosis (Yun et al. 2016). The celomic metaplasia suggests that the celomic cells become the endometrial cells that act on triggers, including toxins, menses, and immune factors in a cyclic way. The altered immunosurveillance suggests that endometriosis occurs either in the case that the immune system is overwhelmed by menstrual backflow, or when a defective system permits the lesions to escape immunosurveillance and continue to thrive.

Uterine Fibroids

The uterine fibroids refer to uterine leiomyoma that appears as rounded solid nodes. They are either tan or white and exhibit a histological look. They are of various sizes from microscopic to substantial sizes, with the typical lesions being the size of grapefruit and are felt through the abdominal walls. Through the microscope, the cells bear a resemblance to the regular cells and create bundles with various directions. The cells are of uniform sizes and shapes with scarce mitoses. Their growth and location regulate the determinants of their capacity to be asymptomatic and problematic. A large lesion located outside the uterus may fail to be noticed while a small lesion located inside the uterus would be symptomatic.

The intramural fibroids are found in the interior of the muscular walls of the uterine walls. They are significantly common and may be asymptomatic. The location of the sub serosal fibroids is on the uterine surface. In some cases., they exhibit outward growth outward from the surface and remain attached to the surface, changing their name to pedunculated fibroids. The submucosal fibroids are situated under the endometrium of the uterus (Botía et al. 2017). They lead to the distortion of the uterine cavity. They are significantly dangerous, as even a small one could result in bleeding and infertility. There are also the extrauterine fibroids of uterine origin. They are also referred to as the metastatic fibroids (Botía et al. 2017). These types of fibroids refer to fibroids that originate from the uterus and positioned in other body sections. As a result of their locations in other parts of the body, they are referred to as parasitic myomas. While the parasitic myomas are rarely harmful, they present adverse effects when they are located in distant and delicate organs.

 

References

Botía, C.P., Camarasa, S.C., Baixauli, F.R. and Sanchez, A.C., 2017. Uterine Fibroids: Understanding their Origins to Better Understand their Future Treatments. J Tumor Res3(130), p.2.

Yun, B.H., Chon, S.J., Choi, Y.S., Cho, S., Lee, B.S. and Seo, S.K., 2016. Pathophysiology of endometriosis: role of high mobility group box-1 and toll-like receptor 4 developing inflammation in endometrium. PloS one11(2).

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