Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) | Do My Essay Paper

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuro-developmental condition, notable in approximately 11% of children. ADHD symptoms can persist into adulthood in more than ¾ of the cases. The disorder is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity and the lack of concentration (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Individuals suffering from ADHD are likely to be successful in life. Nevertheless, delayed recognition and   improper treatment, may pose detrimental implications including poor school performance, substance abuse, depression, delinquency, job failure and accidental injuries.

ADHD symptoms mainly develop during early childhood. Symptoms such as excessive motor activity are common during the toddler years, however, ADHD symptoms such as inattentiveness impulsivity and hyperactivity may be difficult to distinguish from normal active behavior among children. Its diagnosis requires the manifestation of at least 6 symptoms in a child; while adolescents above the age of 17 and adults should have five or more the symptoms. ADHD presentations can be classified into hyperactive- impulsive, predominantly inattentive and combined.

Causes of ADHD

The defined causes of ADHD have yet to be determined. Nonetheless, research postulates a strong association between the disorder and genetics since ADHD is identified among families.  ADHD is termed a complex disorder, resultant from multiple interacting genes. Environmental factors also increase the probability of ADHD prevalence (Allen & Cowdery, 2015). Exposure to pesticides or lead material in early childhood, brain injury and premature birth weight are linked to ADHD development.

Several factors are not necessarily the causes of ADHD, though they exacerbate the condition including: the consumption of excessive amount of sugar among children, family conflict and traumatic experiences (chadd.org, 2017). The condition’s presentation may be altered due to family conflict, resulting in additional problems like antisocial behavior. Problems in parenting styles may also exacerbate the condition.

Signs when a child has ADHD predominantly inattentive presentation;

  • Has difficulty concentrating.
  • Inadequate attentiveness to details.
  • Makes careless mistakes and easily misplaces items.
  • Easily distracted.
  • Inadequate listening skills.
  • Is usually absentminded.
  • Struggles to follow through with instructions.
  • Avoids tasks demanding sustained mental effort.
  • Lacks organization.

 

ADHD predominantly hyperactive-impulsive presentation

  • Constantly fidgets with hands or feet.
  • Has difficulty engaging in activities quietly.
  • Talks excessively.
  • Has difficulty remaining seated.
  • Often interrupts others and constantly blurts out answers before questions have been completed.
  • Extreme restlessness in adults.
  • Has limited patience and may have difficulty taking turns or waiting.

ADHD combined presentation

Patient meets the criterion for a combination of hyperactive-impulsive and inattention ADHD presentations.

Treatment options include pharmacological approaches, behavioral approaches and multimodal approaches that are implemented depending on which is most suitable for ADHD child (ed.gov, 2008). Symptoms may change over time, hence children may manifest different presentations as they grow older.

Assessments for eligibility criteria

Behavior Assessment System (BASC)

The instructor is provided with an extensive range of questions on a child’s behavior. Questions focus on the child’s social skills, rationale and capability of adapting to identify behavioral concerns.

Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale

It assesses how a child’s skills compare to those of children within a similar age-group .An instructor devises a questionnaire on a child’s abilities in basic areas such as communication, motor skills and socialization. The assessment determines whether a child is experiencing delayed developmental challenges.

Vanderbilt Assessment Scale

This behavioral assessment measures the existence and severity of ADHD symptoms. It also assesses other common behavioral concerns and their impact on school performance.  Parents and teachers are asked how often they observe symptoms associated with ADHD and other concerning behaviors. Answers such as “often” and “very often,” enhance the likelihood that the child is suffering from ADHD.

Learning and developmental characteristics of an ADHD student

From the video and research, it is evident that the student with ADHD is unable to focus, and remain attentive for extended periods. This negatively impacts learning because he or she does not listen or even contribute to classroom discussions. Moreover, the child may miss out on several subtle nuances of pronunciation, articulation and language. Instructors are required to implement key modifications considering the student’s disruptive, inattentive and hyperactive nature. The child perceives himself or herself as a behavioural problem, who is challenging to the teacher and who has to incorporate modifications to enhance his or her behavior. This may interfere with child’s self-worth.

Motor skills

In the case of motor activity skills, the child may continually fidget and not concentrate on the intended task. The child may not possess the capability to read, re-evaluate or complete assignments. This may impact their school performance. The instructor may be required to urge the child’s caregivers to encourage him to complete assignments. Notably, the child may be unable to write effectively and his or her sentences and paragraphs may remain incomplete. The child’s grammar, sentence structure and syntax may seem misplaced.

Language

While limited research has been performed regarding the association between ADHD and language, it is postulated that students with ADHD are not at per with their contemporaries in terms of language. More specifically, when children are inattentive and hyperactive, it is possible they do not grasp their instructor’s expressive language (Shaughnessy & Waggoner, 2015). Subtle nuances of language are frequently lost. They may recognize their inability to focus, but never learn specific terminologies utilized in various subjects. For instance, they may fail to comprehend the terms such as numerator or denominator in mathematics or terms such as mole in chemistry. Since the student is generally inattentive, he or she may fail to comprehend the essential components of teamwork. The ADHD student may fail to articulate their emotions and feelings or even describe subtle nuances. Hence, they may require counseling to develop their communication and capacity to engage in conversations.

Emotions

Students with ADHD depict variable emotions. Their medications may disrupt their sleep patterns or stimulate them causing them to be rather irritable. As aforementioned, such students have limited patience and may tend to be less sociable than the rest. Further, they may regularly be alone, with few or no friends. In this case, the instructor may require providing greater assurance and compliments to the child, especially when they complete assignments or tasks. The instructor may also try to make the other students be aware that differing circumstances may cause students to behave differently on different occasions. The probable implication resulting from the varying emotions of ADHD students, is that the instructor’s attention is mainly directed to the affected students. Most often, teachers may have more than one student with emotional or mental instability their classrooms, and other students may not receive adequate attention.

Cognitive

ADHD students lack proper organization skills. During most occasions, other students may help the affected student to organize his or her work. The student may require a list to be reminded of the class materials that are required. With inadequate organization skills, it is probable the child’s cognitive structures are impaired .A student with ADHD may integrate a learning approach that is rather haphazard and chaotic. The manner in which such a student approaches a task may lack rationale and structure. The child may often require an additional set of textbooks for use at home. Moreover, the caregivers may need to implement an organizational framework while at home such that the child can learn when to begin an assignment, how to organize class materials and when to take breaks.

Social

Students with ADHD are impatient .Other students of similar ages may find it difficult to interact with them. Further, such children struggle with articulation and may perceive themselves as a problem, hence they may tend to withdraw from others. Therefore, they socialize less compared to children of their age group and mostly tend to be alone. Teachers may learn that such students may not be willing to share their issues with others and they may fail to express themselves even when they need assistance. Instructors should encourage such students to express themselves and interact with others.

Teaching Strategies

The instructor may enhance the ADHD student’s communication by:

  • Providing regular feedback and attention to positive behavior.
  • Recognizing that students with ADHD may focus greatly on activities they perceive interesting and may require further assistance in shifting their attention.
  • Being sensitive to their feelings and emotions and understanding their struggles with regulating their emotions and self-esteem.
  • Offering additional warnings before shifts in routines.

Teachers should promote the completion of assignments and tasks by:

  • Minimizing distractions in the classroom.
  • Making assignments clear—checking with the students to see if they understand what they are required to do.
  • Providing choices and allowing for selections (for example, allowing the students to select a particular task; whether an oral report, essay or hands-on project.
  • Allowing children to take breaks because students with ADHD may take extra effort in being attentive and can it tiring.
  •  Providing assignments that are short and non- repetitive. Shorter assignments may offer a challenge yet they are not too difficult.
  • Allocating a specific amount of time for children to exercise and move about.
  •  Utilizing organizational tools, such as a homework folder to reduce the quantity of tasks the child has to track.
Develop a Plan That Fits the Child

The instructor should observe and communicate with the child as well as determine distractions that prevent the child from being attentive. For instance, the teacher may determine whether limiting eye contact when listening, background music and fidget tools are beneficial or distracting the child’s attention. The instructor may also engage the child’s caregiver on a regular basis to identify challenges or progress. Collaboration between the care-givers, instructor and healthcare providers ensures a supportive environment for the child.

The knowledge gained through the decision –making process enables instructors to foster quality interactions with children to enhance proper development and learning. It further enables them to learn the significance of integrating specific learning activities to promote positive social development and mitigate challenging behaviors (nap.edu, n.d.). Furthermore, it enables the identification of concerns in a particular child and appropriate social support needs and information resources, for specialized assistance.

Use of assistance technology

Teachers can utilize electronic worksheets to assist students in solving tasks with the aid of a computer, whereby numbers can be magnified and read aloud. Teachers may also provide students with alarms and calendars with reminders to help them stay organized. Noise-canceling earplugs can be utilized by students who easily become distracted by external noises. These plugs can enable them to be more attentive. With the integration of assistive technologies, teachers can engage in other tasks while enhancing their students’ involvement in the classroom.

 

 

Assessment Methods

The Devereux Early Childhood Assessment-Clinical Form (DECA-C) should be utilized by instructors to assess ADHD children’s social and emotional welfare. The DECA-C enables teachers to promote healthy social and emotional development of students, while minimizing significant emotional and behavioral concerns. Teachers may incorporate the DECA-C to guide in the implementation of interventions when a child may require special services. Teachers may also use the Brigance Screen to easily identify potential learning delays and challenges in any developmental domains. The assessment method is efficient and reliable as it provides quick results.

Observation methods

The instructor may observe the ADHD children in his classroom and adopt a systematic approach of collecting anecdotal remarks as a means to derive conclusions concerning the children’s performance in order to plan learning materials. Areas such as language and literacy, creative representation, music, social behavior and logic may be assessed. Professionals may also use observation checklists in the assessment of children’s behavior in the classroom. They may be able to observe and identify the attention span of children in the classroom, and how this influences their learning abilities. Teachers may observe how their students analyze, synthesize, review, and interpret facts and ideas as well as identify how learning impacts a child’s social and emotional development. Such information may also be utilized in planning future educational interventions.

 

How to develop home-school connections, learn from families’ observations, and reciprocate effective teaching strategies

Parents should be involved in curriculum matters to strengthen the home–school relationship. Their participation could be influential to their child’s academic progress, and they would be motivated to monitor the early stages of their child’s preschool activities (Okeke, 2014).Home visits are another effective approach of establishing home–school relations because they provide valuable opportunities for teachers and caregivers in being involved with the child’s learning needs. The teacher may learn from observation by identifying how the child behaves at home and making comparisons that are relevant to his school performance. Moreover, through observation, the instructor may identify a child’s social skills by observing how he or she interacts with family member .Through such interactions, early childhood professionals may feel ethically obligated to support societal aspirations to improve children’s health and welfare both in school and at home. These professionals may learn to comprehend the implications of advocacy and public policy on children’s welfare.

Engaging in informed advocacy for young children

Professionals can conduct an extensive qualitative research on child welfare, facilitate community instruction programs, offer community members with newsletters, and consistently reach out to policymakers to implement legislations that address children’s issues. Moreover, professionals can advocate for the allocation of budgets to child development programs. I would engage in childhood advocacy by addressing the needs of ADHD children and others with special needs by requesting the institution and implementation of policies that promote their proper development and well-being.

How I would apply an ideal and principle from NAEYC

The principle on respecting the value, dignity and distinctiveness of each child would be achieved by acknowledging their differences in order to enhance each one’s independence and capability to handle difficult situations (naeyc.org (2005). I would provide each student with an opportunity to express themselves in a manner they are comfortable with. I would base program practices upon updated research in early childhood and related disciplines, and on specific knowledge of each child while appreciating each student’s distinct capabilities and qualities. I will achieve this ideal by utilizing assessment information in the comprehension and support of children’s learning, and in the identification of children who may require additional services.

 

 

References

Allen, K. E. & Cowdery, G.E. (2015).The exceptional Child: Inclusion in early childhood education (8th ed).Chapter 8 – Learning and Behavior Disorders (pp. 175-179). https://www.cengage.com/c/the-exceptional-child-inclusion-in-early-childhood-education-8e-allen/9781285432373/

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition(DSM-5), Washington, D,C,: American Psychiatric Association.

Chadd.org(2017). About ADHD. Retrieved on 8th Dec from https://chadd.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/aboutADHD.pdf

Ed.gov(2008).U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Office of Special Education Programs, Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Resource for School and Home, Washington, D.C., 2008. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED502959.pdf

Naeyc.org (2005). Code of Ethical Conduct and Statement of Commitment Retrieved 0n 7th Dec 2020 from https://www.naeyc.org/sites/default/files/globally-shared/downloads/PDFs/resources/position-statements/Ethics%20Position%20Statement2011_09202013update.pdf

Nap.edu (n.d.) .Child Development and Early Learning: A Foundation for Professional Knowledge and Competencies Retrieved on 8th Dec 2020 from https://www.nap.edu/resource/19401/ProfKnowCompFINAL.pdf

Okeke, C. I. (2014). Effective home-school partnership: Some strategies to help strengthen parental involvement. South African Journal of Education, 34(3).

Shaughnessy, M. F., & Waggoner, C. R. (2015). The Educational Implications of ADHD: Teachers and Principals Thoughts Concerning Students with ADHD. Creative Education, 6(02), 215.

Do My paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Essay-writing.com

Quality Research Papers

If you’re looking for an Essay writing service to help turn all of your hard work into a product that readers can appreciate, then look no further than our essay writing website. With a team of writers who go the extra mile, and customer support representative’s around-the-clock eager to assist you, we are ready to ace any exam or provide any posterity with what they need.

Top Assignment Writers

Our essay writers are experienced professionals who have the knowledge to write an essay about any subject matter in an interesting way while maintaining academic integrity. Our professional essay writers work day and night to ensure that you receive quality essays on time without any delay or interruption. Looking to "pay someone to do my assignment"? With many years of experience behind us, our essay writing website is now led by professionals with extensive knowledge in various fields of study.

Zero Plagiarism

For any write my essay for me request, you will never need to worry about plagiarism or getting caught up in the stress of completing assignments when you use our professional services! Get started today by ordering your first paper from us and we'll give you 10% off!

24/7 Customer Support

We are available 24/7, 365 days a year to help you out with your academic needs! if you have any "do my paper" questions or technical concerns, simply chat with one of our essay writing customer service representatives via the Chat Window on the bottom right corner of this screen

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money Back Guarantee

These academic experts are distinct from most other essay writing websites because they have doctoral degrees and decades of professional experience in academia. And because they know how overwhelming college life can be, we waive all minimum deadlines so you can focus on studying without worrying about your assignment always hanging over your head.

Free Revisions

Our Academic writers are confident and highly capable to take on any challenge ranging from a simple high school essay, question and answer assignment help, PowerPoint Presentation, research paper, dissertation, among others . However, we do not allow customers who abuse the free revisions privilege.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your "pay for essay" order

Fill in the homework order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits your "do my homework" request

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

When the world rushes and deadlines increase, it's hard to put your best foot forward. The Homework help website is here to help you with top quality essays on all topics, from history papers and engineering design descriptions to sociology case studies. For any write my essay for me request, you can count on a professional team of essay writers who are well experienced and researched in their field as they develop an original paper for you with 24/7 customer support.

Essays

Homework Help Service

The assignment help website is an excellent solution for all your problems regarding writing an outstanding admission essay. You don't need to worry about anything anymore because we will provide you with high-quality papers written by expert writers who know how to write professionally!

Admissions

Paper Formats and Types

From time management skills to APA format citations; from MLA formatting rules for research papers; from college application essays where the stakes are high--all these aspects of academic life become clearer as we write it all down on paper! Essay-Writing.com is a professional essay writing service that provides students with well-researched, high quality essays on any topic and at any level of study.

Reviews

Editing & Proofreading

Some of our clients prefer to write their essays themselves and have a third-party like Essay-writing.com proofread it for errors after they are done writing. We have a skilled team of editors and assignment helpers assignment helpers who examine your paper closely, looking out for any mistakes that may lessen the appeal or effectiveness of the essay as well as make amends in order to better improve its overall quality before you submit it anywhere else! For all your editing needs, turn to Essay-writing.com

Reviews

Revision Support

You work hard at your academics, and you should be rewarded, with a revision or modification for free on any order from a discursive essay , assignment to dissertation papers.

AllEscort