Aquatic invasive species (AIS), including Asian carp cause significant threats to ecological health. “Asian carp” encompasses four species: grass carp, black carp, silver carp, and bighead. Invasion by Asian carp poses severe consequences to other marine organisms and water-related recreational economies. To illustrate, silver carp cause a direct physical threat to human beings since they leap out of the water when startled, regularly colliding with humans and may cause harm or property damage. An invasion might severely impact on particular industries, constituting recreation and fishing. Since multiple water systems thrive on economies based on sport fishing, an increasing Asian carp invasion will disrupt activities such as fishing. Once established, these species are difficult to eradicate. There introduction in the southern U.S. in order to control algae from aquaculture systems and municipal wastewater treatment facilities is becoming a challenge since they have migrated to the Mississippi River basin and are currently near threshold in the Great Lakes. Asian carp populations can reach a weight of approximately 50 pounds and consume around 40% of body weight in plankton daily, and this may inflict ecosystem damage. Asian carp populations might increase rapidly and alter the composition of marine ecosystems (Hayder, 2014). Direct environmental consequences may result from the species’ diverse diets: black carp consume invertebrates such as mussels and snails, grass carp consume aquatic plants, bighead carp consume zooplankton whilst silver carp consume phytoplankton (Stern, Upton & Brougher, 2014). Environmental consequences might involve competition for planktons, causing the reduction of growth rates and abundance of fishes reliant upon this plankton, alongside diminished quantities of fish with pelagic, early life phases. Prospective effects resultant from Asian carp invasions are complex to evaluate due to the underlying complexities of economic and ecological systems. Statistics and models necessary to integrate such assessments are unavailable (Stern, Upton & Brougher, 2014). Besides, comprehensive assessments would be expensive and would necessitate significant research. Nevertheless, this lack of definitive projections does not indicate that the consequences of the Asian carp introduction will be insignificant. Existing data linked to the Asian carp population increase and migration in various drainage systems designate that major threats exist, and the results are likely to be noteworthy. There are possibilities that these fish can disperse and migrate through various drainages, out-competing local fish, to become the most abundant marine organisms in particular locations. Moreover, these organisms have a tendency to muddy the water leading to the decline of plant populations. Consequently, a nation’s economic system is likely to be negatively impacted.
Summarize Your Position on the Topic
As aforementioned, the Asian carp species were mainly introduced to manage algae population and unwanted vegetation. Nevertheless, I feel that their disadvantages outweigh the potential advantages of these fish. They pose significant threats to the environment as well as the economy. Economic activities including commercial fishing, recreational fishing, recreational boating; wildlife viewing; commercial navigation, and beaches and lakefront use that contribute to a nation’s economy, are also likely to be disrupted, resulting from species invasion. For example, it is estimated that the cumulative economic values of these activities will be ranging between $179 billion and $390 billion in 20 years – 50 years.
|List of Activities||Base Year 2018|
|Beaches and Lakefront Use||$248||$5||$11|
Table 1: Estimated Current Values of Affected Activities in the Great Lakes in 20 and 50 Years by Activity
Source: Hayder, S. (2014). Socio-economic impact of the presence of Asian Carp in the Great Lakes basin. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Policy and Economics
According to this study, the introduction of Asian carp in the Great Lakes would have moderate to high damage to recreational fishing, commercial fishing, wildlife viewing, beaches, and lakefront use sectors and recreational boating in the respective periods. Over time, the establishment of these organisms in the Great Lakes basin may alter the domination of water systems whereby Asian carp populations will surpass the native fish populations. In turn, the drainage ecosystems are likely to be damaged and the welfare of individuals residing near such water sources is likely to be harmed. Diverse individuals who depend on activities such fishing as a source of income are likely to be impacted if the Asian carp populations multiply. Considering, the probable consequences of species invasion, this issue must be addressed. Therefore, I propose the integration of measures to manage these Asian carp populations to prevent the devastation of ecological systems.
Indeed, economics is crucial to the comprehension and management of biological invasions, as economic activities, including trade and the movement of goods and people, are key determinants in the establishment and increase of biological species. Economic concepts are significant in the description of responses provided by individuals and public institutions regarding species invasions. Additionally, economics offers tools that aid in the design and evaluation of invasive species regulations that are significant in attaining social objectives, constituting resource allocation to optimize the benefits of invested resources. Since species invasions impose costs, in terms of reduced ecosystem service provisioning and market and nonmarket impacts, decision-makers regularly opt to invest in management to decrease these impacts. Decision-making and justifying resource investments necessitate the utilization of estimates of both management and damage costs. Whereas direct expenditures on carp management can be quantified and readily considered, opportunity costs are frequently overlooked. Likewise, market impacts are usually well-understood and accounted for compared to damages costs not assessed in typical economic markets, such as aesthetic or recreational values. Conversely, ecosystem service impacts and nonmarket values are increased attention and are of higher value.
The Keynesian theory acknowledges that an increase in demand enables development. Consumer demand is central to the expansion of the economy. Hence, the theory affirms the principles of expansionary fiscal policy. It focuses on the association between aggregate income and expenditure. Moreover, it asserts that economic contractions result from inadequate aggregate demand and can be resolved through deficit spending (Sangkuhl, 2015). The application of this theory in the management of Asian carp will assert improved financial outcomes. The Asian carp require to be managed. Preventive measures are necessary to prevent their increase. The control of these invasive species will increase savings that will facilitate increased investments, consequently increasing demand for the production of investments. If the current level of aggregate expenditure is inadequate for the acquisition of all the GDP supplied in an area affected by Asian carp, the returns from activities in the water sources will decline until the level of GDP and level of aggregate expenditure are equivalent. Asian carp invasion will negatively impact the prices and wages, which will further prevent an economy’s resources from being utilized efficiently, thereby preventing the economy from achieving its level of GDP. This will impact the aggregate consumption expenditures since they are determined primarily by current national income. To minimize poor outcomes, invasion management strategies should be implemented to control the Asian carp.
Benefit-cost analysis is suitable for examining whether to participate in a particular biosecurity or invasion mitigation project. It analyzes if the benefits of a project offset its costs to establish whether it is a worthwhile venture. For instance, if a project targets to minimize the Asian carp populations, the benefits generated from the project should offset the costs. Estimates of benefits and costs require to be assessed. Even though the estimation of the financial value of invasion outcomes or mitigation is difficult due to the complexities of invasion dynamics, in several instances, monetizing values for subsets of affected benefits can be done and demonstrate a project’s cost-effectiveness. However, a complete account of benefits would be required to demonstrate the project effectiveness since the exclusion of values assumes they have zero value. Optimal management through the incorporation of adaptation, prevention, and control, strategies, or focus on appropriate practice through the exploration of dynamics of invasive species and their interactions with native species can avoid damage costs in case of successful establishment and increase of the carp.
Alternatively, a return on investment analysis can be utilized to prioritize certain independent investment options, including potential eradication or control projects, as opposed to benefit-cost analysis that is utilized in the evaluation of individual projects. Options are selected based on the expected return on investment (Epanchin-Niell, 2017). Projects that offer the highest benefits relative to costs are selected. It allows cost-effective resource allocation whereby projects are selected in order of decreasing benefit-to-cost ratios. The return on investment analysis is useful in the implementation of invasive species projects because it promotes transparency and simplicity. Furthermore, benefits are not necessarily required to be assessed in monetary units if they are assessed comparably across projects. Management of invasive species, specifically, Asian carp, requires decision-making on the level of measure to implement or degree of control as opposed to binary decisions on whether to fund or not to fund. Generally, decisions focus on selecting the quantity of investment in a specific activity or the extent of policy stringency that will facilitate optimal net gains. Productive investments necessitate management objectives that focus on optimization approaches. Specific objectives may target to identify the most suitable level of treatment to reduce the total costs of treatment and damages from Asian carp or optimize the benefits from control efforts minus the management costs. Similarly, the fishermen may choose how to manage the invasion or when to fish the threatened species of fishes in order to enhance long-term profits. In essence, the integration of these economic concepts will enable the identification of practical solutions that optimize net benefits.
Prevention strategies should be assessed based on prevention investments against anticipated post-invasion costs, and the trade-offs between control investments and prevention. The effects from the establishment of Asian carp are dependent on the probability of establishment, temporal characteristics including transmission rates, localized damage impacts alongside efficiency, and costs of controls post-establishment. Research on prevention strategies has identified the introduction probabilities, growth characteristics, costs, and efficiency of post-establishment control options in relation to optimal investments in prevention (Epanchin-Niell & Liebhold, 2015). When the costs of prevention decrease and prevention effectiveness increases or when post-invasion control increases or effectiveness decreases, maximum investment in prevention is enhanced because invasion becomes more expensive. Water systems affected by Asian carp, including water treatment facilities, can implement adaptation and control measures so long as the marginal benefits are greater than marginal costs.
The Marxian Theory is indispensable for the comprehension of contemporary capitalism, including the limits and contradictions of contemporary capitalism. The theory offers logical concepts of profit. Therefore, it is applicable in the management of species invasion such as Asian carp since it will target to determine the strategies that can emphasize profit-making and minimize costs. To address quarantine and control policies in risk assessments, have been utilized to examine the possibility of the introduction of a species and the extent of damages that may result in case of an invasion. Research connotes a positive correlation between net benefits from utilizing risk assessments to inform control policies across diverse contexts. Moreover, researchers have developed a rigorous approach for screening non-indigenous species imports to effectively trade off the benefits of excluding invading species with consumer costs. Such a strategy reveals the likelihood of profits when implemented. Whereas exclusion represents a binary decision on whether to permit the importation of particular commodities, a range of market and financial tools have been considered for decreasing invasion establishment. Since the Marxian Theory targets profits, prevention strategies will be effective in areas at risk of invasion by the Asian carp while control measures should target the already affected areas. This will ascertain increased profits since the invasion will be prevented in locations that have not yet been affected and reduce the Asian carp populations in areas that have been invaded. The costs incurred will be less than the benefits thus asserting the accumulation of profits.
Conclusively, Economic research on invasive species , particularly Asian carp with significant focus on cost-effective management of biological invasion risks, recognition of trade-offs involved in minimizing invasion impacts and the significant role of human activities in managing invasions has been done consistently. This research has targeted to estimate the effects of invasive species, identify the most effective prevention and control strategies, and evaluate market-based approaches for decreasing invasion impacts. Economic theories comprising the Marxian Theory and Keynesian theory provide principles that can aid in effective control of species invasion by determining the proper strategies that can ascertain greater benefits and fewer costs and increased profits. It has to be identified that the Asian carp invasion will affect the biodiversity of affected water sources and impair the economic activities in an area. Moreover, a nation’s economy is also likely to be negatively impacted, especially if it depends on activities such as commercial fishing and wildlife viewing. Ecologists and economists should continue to work collectively to improve invasion management. Increased collaboration among decision-makers and researchers is vital to develop further existing research findings. I feel that policy evaluation should account for the opportunity costs of policies, recognize the resources targeted to manage invasion, and establish policies for control and prevention of invasions that do not impose societal costs.