Article Review

The purpose of the article

The article focuses on the risk and resilience framework and summarizes the challenges experienced by unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) who get into the United States. It acknowledges that the URMs experience significant challenges, especially since they have to adapt to the new environments on their own without the assistance of accompanying adults. The article acknowledges that adapting to the new environments is accompanied by significant strengths, coping strategies, and resilience of the URMs despite the significant challenges that they may experience in the adapting process (Carlson, Cacciatore & Klimek, 2012).  It determines that the effectiveness of the social workers in the United States is working with the URMs through confirming that the social workers make up the staff of the detention facilities which run by the ORR under HHS. This helps in taking care of the URMs. In contributing to the subject of children immigrants, Spracklin (2019) explain that such immigrants in Spain receive the citizenship of the country,

The research question explored is the resilience of the URMs in the United States as they attempt to survive alone in the foster care and shelters without the assistance of their parents and their kin. The research question attempts to explore the outcome of the adverse experiences that the URMs go through in their lives by determining how these challenges affect the URMs. The study explores the research question through the use of a case study. The study focuses on the resilience of the URMs through conducting an open-ended interview on an identified individual, Jany, who got into the United States from Sudan as an URM. He is efficient for the study following the fact that despite surviving the experiences faced by the URMs, he lost his half-brother to the same experiences.

Key Findings

The key findings generated from the research suggest that most of the URMs who get into the United States are overwhelmed by the adverse effects of separation from their parents. These URMs cannot efficiently survive alone in the new environment, especially following the fact that the expectations they had on life in the United States are not met. As a result of the difficulty in adjusting to the new conditions, most of the individuals who get into the United States as URMs are likely to develop depression later in life.

The second key finding that the study puts forth is that not all the URMs children exposed to multiple risks, including abuse and parental loss, develop adverse outcomes. The study elaborates that if the children exposed to the risks have protective factors, they are likely to be shielded from the harmful effects resulting from the risk exposures. It elaborates that these children who can survive and not experience the adverse outcomes are resilient. The relicense in these children could enable them to effectively thrive and attain high levels of success despite the adverse conditions they are exposed to.

Learned concepts

The two concepts learned in the study include the concept of URMs. URMs are illustrated to refer to unaccompanied refugee minors. The article illustrates that in the process of fleeing from various areas affected by different dangerous situations to seek refuge in safe, some minors flee without being accompanied by their parents or kin. The second concept learned from the article is the concept of resilience. The article elaborates on resilience as the ability to survive through a difficult situation without being adversely affected by the situation. It is explained as the ability to survive through a difficult situation and attain greatness without being hindered by the difficulties.

Knowledge-Informed Question

What role do the social workers in the united states play in helping the URMs develop the resilience required for them to adopt and thrive in the new environment?




Carlson, B. E., Cacciatore, J., & Klimek, B. (2012). A risk and resilience perspective on unaccompanied refugee minors. Social work57(3), 259-269.

Spracklin, P. (2019). Top 10 Immigration Friendly Countries. Immigroup. Retrieved 13 November 2020, from


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