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Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics | Homework Helpers

Article Citation and PermalinkArticle 1

Hales, C. M., Fryar, C. D., Carroll, M. D., Freedman, D. S., Aoki, Y., & Ogden, C. L. (2018). Differences in obesity prevalence by demographic characteristics and urbanization level among adults in the United States, 2013-2016. Jama, 319(23), 2419-2429.

Broad Topic Area/TitleDissimilarities in Obesity Prevalence by Urbanization Level and Demographic Characteristics Among Adults in the United States
Problem StatementReports have indicated distinctions in the likings of obesity among adults in the United States by age group, sex, and race. However, disparities in obesity move by other demographic attributes have been reported. Distinctions in the preference of long-standing disease risk factors have been reported among grown-ups living in rural places compared with persons living in city areas. (p. 3,6)
Purpose StatementThe major goal of this research was to provide the latest four years approximate (2013-2016) for the precedence of obesity by age group, sex, race and Hispanic origin, smoking status, educational level, and urbanization (p. 7,8).
Research QuestionsAre there distinctions in obesity prevalence by urbanization level and demographic attributes among adults in the United States?
Define Hypothesis Categorical variable: Gender

Age group, smoking status, sex, educational level, Hispanic origin and race, educational level.

Independent and Dependent VariablesDependent variable: Gender


Independent valuables: Age group, sex, education level, smoking status, race, Hispanic origin, and urbanization level.

The population of Interest for Study11078 participants
Sample 10792 participants.

Groups: 60 years or older, 40 to 59 years, 20 to 39 years, and (p. 2, 9, 10).

Sampling Method Case-control study, multistage probability sampling, stratified, and logistic regression model (p. 11).
Identify Data CollectionFocus groups, observations, records, and documents.
Summarize Data Collection ApproachModified prevalence ratio, Wald 95% CIs, and modified differences were calculated using logistics retreat methods (p. 17).
Discuss Data AnalysisMultistage probability sampling, stratified, logistic regression model (p. 11).
Summarize Results of StudyObesity and severe obesity prevalence rose with reducing the level of urbanization from bigger MSAs to small MSAs and non-MSAs.

Identified the pattern in both males and females. Prevalence of obesity and severe obesity differed by race, age group and Hispanic origin, smoking status, educational level, and sex.

Trends in BMI spreading between 2001-2004 and 2013-2016 to the higher end are typical manifest among adults living in non-MSAs

Research of the 2013-2016 information 135 adults omitted weight and height and excluded 135 expectant women. Sample size of 10729 adults was the remaining sample size. 16 adults with omitted smoking status and educational level were excluded.

Among all adults, 7.6% (95% CL, 6.8% to 8.6%) had extreme obesity, and 38.9% had obesity. The age-adjusted prevalence was 40.8% among women and 36.5% among men. The age-adjusted prevalence for extreme obesity was 9.8% among women and 5.5% among men. Hispanic males had significant higher age-adjusted acceptances of obesity as contrasted with non- Hispanic white males.

Summary of Assumptions and Limitations


The research had many limitations. First, BMI is a secondary measure of health risk and adiposity.  Adiposity level fluctuates among race, age group, and Hispanic origin (p. 37, 38).

Second, NHANES was not formed to give approximations for person urbanization levels (p. 22).

Lastly, although sampling weight alters for nonresponse, remaining prejudice may remain because of incomplete nonresponse modification.


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Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics | Homework Helpers . (2022, June 10). Essay Writing . Retrieved December 08, 2022, from https://www.essay-writing.com/samples/article-analysis-and-evaluation/
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