Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics | Homework Helpers

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Hales, C. M., Fryar, C. D., Carroll, M. D., Freedman, D. S., Aoki, Y., & Ogden, C. L. (2018). Differences in obesity prevalence by demographic characteristics and urbanization level among adults in the United States, 2013-2016. Jama, 319(23), 2419-2429.

Point Description
Broad Topic Area/Title Dissimilarities in Obesity Prevalence by Urbanization Level and Demographic Characteristics Among Adults in the United States
Problem Statement Reports have indicated distinctions in the likings of obesity among adults in the United States by age group, sex, and race. However, disparities in obesity move by other demographic attributes have been reported. Distinctions in the preference of long-standing disease risk factors have been reported among grown-ups living in rural places compared with persons living in city areas. (p. 3,6)
Purpose Statement The major goal of this research was to provide the latest four years approximate (2013-2016) for the precedence of obesity by age group, sex, race and Hispanic origin, smoking status, educational level, and urbanization (p. 7,8).
Research Questions Are there distinctions in obesity prevalence by urbanization level and demographic attributes among adults in the United States?
Define Hypothesis Categorical variable: Gender

Age group, smoking status, sex, educational level, Hispanic origin and race, educational level.

Independent and Dependent Variables Dependent variable: Gender


Independent valuables: Age group, sex, education level, smoking status, race, Hispanic origin, and urbanization level.

The population of Interest for Study 11078 participants
Sample 10792 participants.

Groups: 60 years or older, 40 to 59 years, 20 to 39 years, and (p. 2, 9, 10).

Sampling Method Case-control study, multistage probability sampling, stratified, and logistic regression model (p. 11).
Identify Data Collection Focus groups, observations, records, and documents.
Summarize Data Collection Approach Modified prevalence ratio, Wald 95% CIs, and modified differences were calculated using logistics retreat methods (p. 17).
Discuss Data Analysis Multistage probability sampling, stratified, logistic regression model (p. 11).
Summarize Results of Study Obesity and severe obesity prevalence rose with reducing the level of urbanization from bigger MSAs to small MSAs and non-MSAs.

Identified the pattern in both males and females. Prevalence of obesity and severe obesity differed by race, age group and Hispanic origin, smoking status, educational level, and sex.

Trends in BMI spreading between 2001-2004 and 2013-2016 to the higher end are typical manifest among adults living in non-MSAs

Research of the 2013-2016 information 135 adults omitted weight and height and excluded 135 expectant women. Sample size of 10729 adults was the remaining sample size. 16 adults with omitted smoking status and educational level were excluded.

Among all adults, 7.6% (95% CL, 6.8% to 8.6%) had extreme obesity, and 38.9% had obesity. The age-adjusted prevalence was 40.8% among women and 36.5% among men. The age-adjusted prevalence for extreme obesity was 9.8% among women and 5.5% among men. Hispanic males had significant higher age-adjusted acceptances of obesity as contrasted with non- Hispanic white males.

Summary of Assumptions and Limitations


The research had many limitations. First, BMI is a secondary measure of health risk and adiposity.  Adiposity level fluctuates among race, age group, and Hispanic origin (p. 37, 38).

Second, NHANES was not formed to give approximations for person urbanization levels (p. 22).

Lastly, although sampling weight alters for nonresponse, remaining prejudice may remain because of incomplete nonresponse modification.


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