One of the key differences between the two rival states of Sparta and Athens was that Athens was a democracy, whereas Sparta was made up of Oligarchy. The ways of ruling between the two hence led to multiple battles on the way of leadership and association, which as a result led to conflicts. Another difference between the two is that Athens fought for the democratic reforms of Cleisthenes, where on the other hand Sparta opposed these reforms, hence resulting in a major fight. A third difference between the two is that Athens started treating fellow members as ruled subjects instead of partners, and also engaged in short wars as a way of forcing members who had quit the league to rejoin it. Such moves were interpreted by Sparta to be acts of provocation, where Sparta hence canceled its earlier treaty resulting in more conflict.
The Greeks extended their territories to the Eastern Mediterranean which was initially dominated by the Persians. The influence of Persia in the Mediterranean was hence lost in the later 4th century after Alexander conquered the region. The Greco-Persian wars in the 5th century are one of the major factors that weakened Persians and made them feel from controlling the East Mediterranean. This resulted in the Greek success in the wars, where a large contingent of Persian fleets was destroyed. The Persian garrisons also got expelled, making the end to their advancing in the westwards of the continent.
One of the greatest achievements of Alexander the Great, was the proliferation of the Greek culture. The culture had a very vital influence on the areas in which Alexander conquered. As a result, the culture began a new era of history which is known as the Hellenistic Age. The culture is still practiced by the Greek Society centuries after his death. The second accomplishment of Alexander was the establishment of cities, which include the Egyptian city which is currently home to over 4.5 million people. Many Alexandrians were located on trade routes, a factor that led to a surge in the flow of commodities between the East and West, hence leading to the development of urban centers. Finally, Alexander brought about Unity in the region, where people of divergent cultures and religions were tolerated. Soldiers, traders, goods, and customers all mingled together without discrimination. This is a legacy that has been emulated by many in the North, even after the demise of Alexander.
The ancient Greeks left behind multiple legacies in various fields, where their legacies have played a major role in influencing modern civilizations. one of the main legacies the Greeks left was their Philosophy. Most of the ancient philosophers were from Greek, where they included Socrates, Aristotle, and Plato, and are currently studied by many scholars. Philosophy entails the love of wisdom and was created bn to help in understanding the world in a non-religious way. Socrates tried to answer the question of “what is right and Wrong”, whereas Plato uses dialogue in writing to expound on justice and the types of governance. Aristotle’s philosophy entailed reasoning about the middle ground between good and bad, where he also uttered Alexander the Great, who ended up being one of the best kings. The philosophy from the ancient Greeks is still applied in the modern era to understand numerous issues in the society including modes of governance.