Amphetamine Research Paper | Homework Help

Amphetamine is considered as one of the most controlled and regulated drugs around the globe, discovered over 100 years ago. It is known to be a central nervous stimulant, also identified as a psycho-stimulant utilized for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy, and even Parkinson’s disease and obesity[1]. Amphetamines are illegal when utilized to get high or improve performance. In this case, they are considered as street drugs and may result in addiction despite being for clinical use. Other forms of amphetamines, such as speed, are manufactured and retailed illegitimately. Amphetamines appearance varies in the form of powder, tablets, crystals, and capsules[2]. Also, it may be wrapped in plastic stacks or small inflatables when unlawfully retailed. Amphetamine powder contains a wide range of colors such as white and brown, with traces of pink or grey being visible[3]. Amphetamines that are illegally produced may be a mixture of drugs, mandatory agents, caffeine, and sugar.

In the last decade, many developed and undeveloped nations have experienced a substantial surge in the accessibility and the use of Amphetamine. Amphetamine stimulating substance comprise the second utmost regularly consumed set of illicit drugs around the globe after cocaine[4]. The drug can be termed as a European drug, with Europe being the largest producer of the substance as well as being the key consumer market. Of an estimated 200 million individuals that consume drugs globally, 35million individuals are said to use Amphetamine. It is more than those described to consume cocaine that stands at 13 million users and opiates at approximately 16 million users combined. According to a survey done in regards to the abuse of the drug, 1 out of 20 grown-ups have used amphetamines on a non-prescribed basis in the United States[5]. And in most nations, mainly in Northern and East part of Europe, it is considered as second most extensively misused element after cannabis.

Production

Amphetamine contains chemical features of bases and ought to be mixed with acids to generate a salt after its pure form has been produced. For instance, the amphetamine base is supplemented with hydrochloric acid or the sulfate acid to create amphetamine hydrochloride to produce a salt[6]. Pure amphetamine and hydrochloride contain similar pharmacological aspects despite displaying a variance in the chemical forms, and physical properties that include solubility, the melting point, the weight of each drug molecule, and ph[7]. Amphetamines are oily substances that are chemically and physically less stable in the base form and also frequently more difficult to crystallize as compared to the generated salt. Hence, most of the amphetamines are marketed in crystalline form.

Despite the production of some amphetamine being done in small kitchen laboratories, a majority of the production is done in the middle to extensive or industrial-sized facilities managed by criminal gangs conducting operations through Europe and beyond. Large scale manufacture of the drug and involvement in organized crime is mainly found in North of Europe, particularly in the north-west criminal hub that comprises of Netherlands and Belgium[8]. There are indications of improved yields and professionalism as a result of using custom designed manufacturing apparatus. Significant manufacture and transportation of the drug are also prevalent in the northeast hub, Poland, where the manufacture is detailed to be on the rise from 3kg per manufacture consignment to between four to eight kilograms. The small scale is predominant in central Europe, Germany. Production of amphetamine can be conducted at a lower cost, close to the buyer markets[9].  However, the main problem experienced by the producer is access to precursor chemicals needed to produce the drug.

 

Contexts of Use

Users of amphetamine range from sporadic/leisure use to dense, problematical inoculating and polydrug use[10]. It can be swallowed, inhaled, or smoked and, less commonly, injected. In powder form, amphetamine is generally injected or snorted. The crystalline form of amphetamine is typically smoked. When inhaled or injected, it rapidly spreads to the brain and is associated with a high threat of addiction.

A majority of individuals use the drug for many different reasons and many different ways. Lack of understanding of how the use fits in a person’s life, of whatever purpose the element fulfills, it is difficult to provide reliable or valuable assistance. Most users find the substance as a result of its perceived purpose of enhancing sexual performance and communication and in other aspects, is considered as an embodiment of a modern and fashionable lifestyle[11]. Numerous sex personnel live an augmented way of life, using liquor and pills that prejudice decisions. Substance abuse is fortified by inappropriate and overdue periods, multiple and occasionally offensive clienteles, and they want to unwind hang-ups in order to take part in detrimental erotic actions[12]. A majority of the consumers start using the drug because it makes them feel good. Abuse of the drug is usually instigated in a convenient and in the form of discrete pills to avoid the dangers and social humiliation of injections. In addition, they are reasonably priced, frequently retailed in single dosage units. Another reason as to why individual’s use Amphetamine is because many perceive that boosts the level of confidence, self-esteem, concentration, energy and can assist when working or studying[13]. Also, Truck drivers as well frequently comprehensively utilize the tablets devoid of a doctor’s approval and advice.

Harms attributed to the Use of Amphetamines

Some of the ills linked to abuse of amphetamine are referred to as hefty as compared to recreational purposes. Many aspects contribute to amphetamine interrelated dangers and destructions. Not only the substance but also the conduct and selections of the individual consumer, the atmosphere in which they use the drug.

Injections

There is a robust connection between abuse of the drug and HIV related infections, most considerably for consumers who inoculate the drugs and risk HIV and hepatitis A contaminations from utilizing or infected needles[14]. For instance, in a survey conducted by Rotheram-Borus and colleagues, they assessed psychosexual and substance misuse interviews involving 337 young individuals living with HIV. The scholars found that 38% of the youths had abused the drug at one point in their life, and 21% were presently users[15]. Youths that had used amphetamines had more sexual cohorts as well as encounters in their life and were tangled in more dangerous deeds as compared to those that had never used amphetamines. The amphetamine consumers were less likely to use condoms during erotic encounters, and an increased likelihood of injecting drugs and sharing needles. For instance, in the Czech Republic, injecting amphetamine is responsible for about two-thirds of all infusing substances.

Smouldering and Inhaling

Substantial consumers of the substance are expected to smoulder than injecting, particularly when consuming crystalline substance. The thirst as a result of using the substance can make the oral cavity to crack and lead to bleeding, increasing the probability of contracting and transmitting contaminations through shared smoking equipment. Smoking using a pipe can result in burns on fingers while utilizing unclean canisters such as paint cans or unsuitable tools like plastic canisters can lead to breathing in poisonous gases. Straws used for inhaling may turn out to be stained with body fluid and, therefore, diffuse blood-borne diseases, particularly hepatitis C.

Amphetamines and pregnancy

The use of amphetamines for the duration of pregnancy does not appear to result in hereditary deficiencies. It has been linked to raising dangers of heart deficiencies and cleft lip and palate in findings in which the persons utilized several drugs, confusing outcomes. Consuming Amphetamines during the prenatal period is also associated with low mass, untimely delivery, postnatal bleeding, and a retained placenta[16]. In recent findings, use of amphetamines during the prenatal period has been linked to intensified emotive reactivity and nervousness in kids between the ages of 3 and 5 and delicate discrepancies in inhibitory regulation during early years in school.  Heavy use of amphetamines frequently results in deprived nourishment, insomnia, increased use of tobacco, and trouble scheduling in advance and honouring engagements, signifying that expectant women that abuse the drug are at danger for numerous aspects that promote to a high-risk pregnancy.

Production and environmental harms

Illegal production of amphetamines may be hazardous to individuals manufacturing the drug as well as those around the environment. Biochemical procedures encompassed in the manufacture of amphetamines necessitate and yield combustible, cancer-causing, toxic, and corrosive materials. Some of the materials are likely to cause outbursts if not well managed. These dangers are immense if the personnel display a lack of knowledge of biochemical procedures or if their decision is compromised due to drugs or additional aspects. Substances can disperse into adjacent spaces and pollute soil and aquatic life. Appropriate cleaning of methamphetamine laboratories is costly, inefficient, and in some cases, unsafe.

Effects

The neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine are discharged from nerve ends in the brain, the reuptake is subdued upon the use of amphetamine[17]. When nerve cells in the mind and vertebral cord are triggered by amphetamine, psychological attention, the capacity to remain wide-awake, and the capability to focus is enhanced, which is useful to individuals with hyperactivity syndromes or narcolepsy[18]. Even though the physical experience of consuming amphetamines and cocaine is virtually equal, the consequences of amphetamines can persist for quite a few hours while the impacts of cocaine usually continue for less than an hour[19]. When blended with liquor or additional drugs, the outcomes of recommendation amphetamines are greater. The commencement of impacts from the injection of amphetamines happens instantly. When this drug is inhaled, impacts are felt in 3 to 5 minutes; when swallowed, effects transpire in 15 to 20 minutes[20].

Over dosage may result in a fast and unequal heartbeat, trembles, lack of harmonization, and bodily failure. Modest amounts precipitate dehydrated mouth, temperature, and sweltering, blurry image, wooziness, and appetite loss. Little amounts cause intensified inhalation, faster heart rate, high blood pressure, and enlarged pupils[21]. Unexpected demise because of stroke and heart attack may be due to injections[22]. Alcohol or cannabis are frequently consumed in order to reduce undesired overstimulation[23]. The mixture of liquor and amphetamine surges the danger of dangerous voluptuous conduct and an upsurge of sexually diffused diseases[24]. Other problems amongst consumers comprise cerebral ailments such as dependence on alcohol and sadness.

Approaches taken in response to its production, usage and impact/harms

Advocacy and raising awareness

Administrations, philanthropists, and consumers are not entirely conscious of the complications related to the use and the fast upsurge of abuse, especially amongst the youth. Raising awareness has to start at the consumer level. User groups and NGOs necessitate raising the subject with contributors and multidimensional organizations[25]. It is best to perform interchange and capacity encouraging amongst support groups, outreach personnel, and health and detriment reduction societies. Data based learning resources with encounters from other nations require translation into local dialects and modified to the native and national perspective to make them applicable and to sustain noble outreach[26].

Treatment and harm reduction services

Precautionary procedures should be ratified, such as objection to injections, distribution of condoms, syringe exchange programs (NSEP), and provision of data, education, and communication (IEC) resources for drug consumers, their erotic cohorts and their relatives[27]. UNAIDS and WHO ought to put into consideration to this subject mainly looking at the enlarged sexual danger via no injected amphetamine utilization[28]. Launching associations and a recommendation system to well-being and safety services. Health care procedures ought to consist of crucial health care, diagnosis of STIs and treatment of STIs, psychosocial provision, and individual cleanliness[29]. STI hospitals and condom delivery agendas are decent access points to reach out to the users. Sensitization on drug abuse ought to be incorporated with the distribution of contraceptives.

Alternative responses

It is necessary to raise awareness amongst those that abuse drugs on how to use drugs safely. In specific with susceptible groups such as the youth and sex workers, to coach them of the dangers and possible complications associated with amphetamine usage[30]. Sentience on the diffusion of diseases such as HIV concerning the use of the drug requires to be enhanced. Additionally, unsafe sensual habits that frequently go together with the use of amphetamine may likewise result in the spread of blood-borne illnesses and are perhaps even more dangerous. Commercial sex workers in specific immediately necessitate support policies and information on ways of reducing the harms attributed to the use.

Recommendation of oral dosages of continued discharge dexamphetamine could assist in getting persons from the amphetamine. Dexamphetamine supernumerary management for dependence of amphetamine displays encouraging outcomes and give the impression of being efficient and non-toxic precisely, in averting relapses[31]. But the inquiry has remained much more restricted than for methadone management for users of heroin.  Conceivable usage of mild plant-based stimulating substances as replacement management should also be evaluated.

Longitudinal illustrative field trainings are required in order to monitor the users and determine the approaches utilized to regulate or cease using the drugs[32]. Consideration must be concentrated on ascertaining the changing points that permit the users to alter their ways, and on the windows of openings for service interpolations. Assessments are also necessary of interventions that move hooked individuals from communities that are drug-saturated to localities or protected living conditions with such life options or confidence-building schemes as progressing with education and work and training based on technical skills[33].

In any population that comprises of young individuals, whether they are in the typical or not, there is a huge ration that never uses drugs, or is experimentally using the drug, who would profit from mechanisms and communications that endorse non-use[34]. Some of the young individuals dwell with practical benefits that include defensive aspects and profit from wide-ranging global prevention. Some are further susceptible since they are subjected to one or more dangers in their way of life[35]. Exposed people comprise of people who have been substantially or sexually mistreated, native young guys, those with poor institute networks, the displaced, young criminals, youth with cerebral health complications, homosexuals and transgender individuals, those tangled in the sex occupation and kids of parents who abuse drugs[36].

Conclusion

While amphetamine continues to be a major worry in numerous areas, other elements will certainly appear in the future. Subsequently, whereas tackling specific concerns concerning amphetamine, it is vital to develop frameworks for the preclusion of all aspects. If that framework is presently existent in an area of society, an all-inclusive, constant method to tackle the use—while operational in averting or delaying the use, will also be a footstep in the course of developing the capability for general prevention of substance use. When this transpires, the merits to persons, relatives, and societies will be significant.  No drug set has developed in usage as amphetamine has in the past decade, and there is an extent of harm linked with their usage. The use of Amphetamine can take an inordinate toll on the youthful individual, along with close to them. It may result in longstanding social welfare, criminal impartiality, well-being, and misplaced cost of productivity to society. Together with determining determinations in the parts of the implementation, preclusion of the adverse health and societal penalties of drug abuse and management, deterrence policies, and planning can make a significant impact on tackling distress in a state or society.

 

 

Bibliography

Jean-Paul, Philip Coffin, Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Minke Dijkstra, Dick De Bruin, and Peter Blanken. “The fast and furious—cocaine, amphetamines and harm reduction.” Monographs (2010): 191.

. “Speed limits: harm reduction for people who use stimulants.” (2018).

Amphetamine.” Amphetamine – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. Accessed March 30, 2020. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/psychology/amphetamine.

Amphetamine.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Accessed March 30, 2020. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Amphetamine.

Blickman, Tom. “Amphetamine type stimulants and harm reduction.” Amsterdam, Netherlands: Transnational Institute (TNI) (2011).

Brensilver, Matthew, Keith G. Heinzerling, and Steven Shoptaw. “Pharmacotherapy of amphetamine‐type stimulant dependence: an update.” Drug and alcohol review 32, no. 5 (2013): 449-460.

Brensilver, Matthew, Keith G. Heinzerling, and Steven Shoptaw. “Pharmacotherapy of amphetamine‐type stimulant dependence: an update.” Drug and alcohol review 32, no. 5 (2013): 449-460.

Carvalho, Márcia, Helena Carmo, Vera Marisa Costa, João Paulo Capela, Helena Pontes, Fernando Remião, Félix Carvalho, and Maria de Lourdes Bastos. “Toxicity of amphetamines: an update.” Archives of toxicology 86, no. 8 (2012): 1167-1231.

Chen, Hongxian, Jin Wu, Jichun Zhang, and Kenji Hashimoto. “Recent topics on pharmacotherapy for amphetamine-type stimulants abuse and dependence.” Current drug abuse reviews 3, no. 4 (2010): 222-238.

Colfax, Grant, Glenn-Milo Santos, Priscilla Chu, Eric Vittinghoff, Andreas Pluddemann, Suresh Kumar, and Carl Hart. “Amphetamine-group substances and HIV.” The Lancet 376, no. 9739 (2010): 458-474.

Degenhardt, Louisa, Bradley Mathers, Mauro Guarinieri, Samiran Panda, Benjamin Phillips, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Mark Tyndall, Lucas Wiessing, Alex Wodak, and John Howard. “Meth/amphetamine use and associated HIV: Implications for global policy and public health.” International Journal of Drug Policy 21, no. 5 (2010): 347-358.

Denning, Patt, and Jeannie Little. Practicing harm reduction psychotherapy: An alternative approach to addictions. Guilford Press, 2011.

EMCDDA. European Drug Report: Trends and Developments. Portugal: 2015.

Fletcher, Adam, Amador Calafat, Alessandro Pirona, and Deborah Olszewski. “Young people, recreational drug use and harm reduction.” (2010): 357-378.

Fonseca, Ana Catarina, and José M. Ferro. “Drug abuse and stroke.” Current neurology and neuroscience reports 13, no. 2 (2013): 325.

Frei, Matthew. “Party Drugs-Use and Harm Reduction.” Australian family physician 39, no. 8 (2010): 558.

Freye, Enno, and Joseph V. Levy. “Pharmacology and abuse of cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy and related designer drugs.” Pharmacology of cocaine, Springer (2010): 49-60.

Harro, Jaanus. “Neuropsychiatric adverse effects of amphetamine and methamphetamine.” In International review of neurobiology, vol. 120, pp. 179-204. Academic Press, 2015.

Hartnoll, Richard, Anna Gyarmathy, and Tomas Zabransky. “Variations in problem drug use patterns and their implications for harm reduction.” MONOGRAPHS (2010): 405.

Heal, David J., Sharon L. Smith, Jane Gosden, and David J. Nutt. “Amphetamine, past and present–a pharmacological and clinical perspective.” Journal of Psychopharmacology 27, no. 6 (2013): 479-496.

Hodgkins, Paul, Monica Shaw, Suzanne McCarthy, and Floyd R. Sallee. “The pharmacology and clinical outcomes of amphetamines to treat ADHD.” CNS drugs 26, no. 3 (2012): 245-268.

Related: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder research paper

Kirkpatrick, Matthew G., Chris-Ellyn Johanson, and Harriet de Wit. “Personality and the acute subjective effects of d-amphetamine in humans.” Journal of psychopharmacology 27, no. 3 (2013): 256-264.

Latest analysis highlights changing trends in illicit production of amphetamine in Europe, October 2017. http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/news/2011/13_en.

Maher, L., P. Phlong, Julie Mooney-Somers, S. Keo, E. Stein, M. C. Couture, and K. Page. “Amphetamine-type stimulant use and HIV/STI risk behaviour among young female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.” International Journal of Drug Policy 22, no. 3 (2011): 203-209.

Mickle, Travis, Suma Krishnan, Barney Bishop, Christopher Lauderback, James Scott Moncrief, Robert Oberlender, Thomas Piccariello, Bernhard J. Paul, and Christopher A. Verbicky. “Abuse-resistant amphetamine prodrugs.” U.S. Patent 7,700,561, issued April 20, 2010.

Mullen, Jeff M., and Adam T. Crawford. “Amphetamine Related Psychiatric Disorders.” In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing, 2019.

Radfar, Seyed Ramin, and Richard A. Rawson. “Current research on methamphetamine: epidemiology, medical and psychiatric effects, treatment, and harm reduction efforts.” Addiction & health 6, no. 3-4 (2014): 146.

SMART Programme. Patterns and Trends of Amphetamine-Type Stimulants and Other Drugs: Challenges for Asia and the Pacific 2013. Vienna: 2013.

Stockings, Emily, Wayne D. Hall, Michael Lynskey, Katherine I. Morley, Nicola Reavley, John Strang, George Patton, and Louisa Degenhardt. “Prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of substance use in young people.” The Lancet Psychiatry 3, no. 3 (2016): 280-296.

Wardle, Margaret C., Michael T. Treadway, Leah M. Mayo, David H. Zald, and Harriet de Wit. “Amping up effort: effects of d-amphetamine on human effort-based decision-making.” Journal of Neuroscience 31, no. 46 (2011): 16597-16602.

Weafer, Jessica, and Harriet de Wit. “Inattention, impulsive action, and subjective response to d-amphetamine.” Drug and alcohol dependence 133, no. 1 (2013): 127-133.

Yamamoto, Bryan K., Anna Moszczynska, and Gary A. Gudelsky. “Amphetamine toxicities Classical and emerging mechanisms.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1187 (2010): 101.

[1] Hodgkins, Paul, Monica Shaw, Suzanne McCarthy, and Floyd R. Sallee. “The pharmacology and clinical outcomes of amphetamines to treat ADHD.” CNS drugs 26, no. 3 (2012): 245-268.

[2] Amphetamine.” Amphetamine – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. Accessed March 30, 2020. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/psychology/amphetamine.

[3] Global SMART Programme. Patterns and Trends of Amphetamine-Type Stimulants and Other Drugs: Challenges for Asia and the Pacific 2013. Vienna: 2013.

[4] Brensilver, Matthew, Keith G. Heinzerling, and Steven Shoptaw. “Pharmacotherapy of amphetamine‐type stimulant dependence: an update.” Drug and alcohol review 32, no. 5 (2013): 449-460.

[5] Chen, Hongxian, Jin Wu, Jichun Zhang, and Kenji Hashimoto. “Recent topics on pharmacotherapy for amphetamine-type stimulants abuse and dependence.” Current drug abuse reviews, 3, no. 4 (2010): 222-238.

[6] Brensilver, Matthew, Keith G. Heinzerling, and Steven Shoptaw. “Pharmacotherapy of amphetamine‐type stimulant dependence: an update.” Drug and alcohol review 32, no. 5 (2013): 449-460.

[7] Amphetamine.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Accessed March 30, 2020. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Amphetamine.

[8] Latest analysis highlights changing trends in the illicit production of amphetamine in Europe, October 1, 2017. http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/news/2011/13_en.

[9] EMCDDA. European Drug Report: Trends and Developments. Portugal: 2015.

[10]. Mickle, Travis, Suma Krishnan, Barney Bishop, Christopher Lauderback, James Scott Moncrief, Robert Oberlender, Thomas Piccariello, Bernhard J. Paul, and Christopher A. Verbicky. “Abuse-resistant amphetamine prodrugs.” U.S. Patent 7,700,561, issued April 20, 2010.

[11] Wardle, Margaret C., Michael T. Treadway, Leah M. Mayo, David H. Zald, and Harriet de Wit. “Amping up effort: effects of d-amphetamine on human effort-based decision-making.” Journal of Neuroscience 31, no. 46 (2011): 16597-16602.

[12] Frei, Matthew. “Party Drugs-Use and Harm Reduction.” Australian family physician, 39, no. 8 (2010): 558.

[13] Freye, Enno, and Joseph V. Levy. “Pharmacology and abuse of cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy, and related designer drugs.” Pharmacology of cocaine, Springer (2010): 49-60.

[14] Colfax, Grant, Glenn-Milo Santos, Priscilla Chu, Eric Vittinghoff, Andreas Pluddemann, Suresh Kumar, and Carl Hart. “Amphetamine-group substances and HIV.” The Lancet 376, no. 9739 (2010): 458-474.

[15] Degenhardt, Louisa, Bradley Mathers, Mauro Guarinieri, Samiran Panda, Benjamin Phillips, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Mark Tyndall, Lucas Wiessing, Alex Wodak, and John Howard. “Meth/amphetamine use and associated HIV: Implications for global policy and public health.” International Journal of Drug Policy 21, no. 5 (2010): 347-358.

[16] Keegan, Joan, Mehdi Parva, Mark Finnegan, Andrew Gerson, and Michael Belden. “Addiction in pregnancy.” Journal of addictive diseases 29, no. 2 (2010): 175-191.

[17] Yamamoto, Bryan K., Anna Moszczynska, and Gary A. Gudelsky. “Amphetamine toxicities Classical and emerging mechanisms.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1187 (2010): 101.

[18] Heal, David J., Sharon L. Smith, Jane Gosden, and David J. Nutt. “Amphetamine, past, and present–a pharmacological and clinical perspective.” Journal of Psychopharmacology 27, no. 6 (2013): 479-496.

[19] Harro, Jaanus. “Neuropsychiatric adverse effects of amphetamine and methamphetamine.” In International review of neurobiology, vol. 120, pp. 179-204. Academic Press, 2015.

[20] Kirkpatrick, Matthew G., Chris-Ellyn Johanson, and Harriet de Wit. “Personality and the acute subjective effects of d-amphetamine in humans.” Journal of psychopharmacology 27, no. 3 (2013): 256-264.

[21] Carvalho, Márcia, Helena Carmo, Vera Marisa Costa, João Paulo Capela, Helena Pontes, Fernando Remião, Félix Carvalho, and Maria de Lourdes Bastos. “Toxicity of amphetamines: an update.” Archives of toxicology 86, no. 8 (2012): 1167-1231.

[22] Fonseca, Ana Catarina, and José M. Ferro. “Drug abuse and stroke.” Current neurology and neuroscience reports 13, no. 2 (2013): 325.

[23] Weafer, Jessica, and Harriet de Wit. “Inattention, impulsive action, and subjective response to d-amphetamine.” Drug and alcohol dependence 133, no. 1 (2013): 127-133.

[24] Lawyer, Glenn, Petr S. Bjerkan, Anders Hammarberg, Nitya Jayaram-Lindström, Johan Franck, and Ingrid Agartz. “Amphetamine dependence and co-morbid alcohol abuse: associations to brain cortical thickness.” BMC Pharmacology 10, no. 1 (2010): 5.

[25] Kilmer, Jason R., Jessica M. Cronce, Scott B. Hunt, and Christine M. Lee. “Reducing harm associated with illicit drug use: Opiates, amphetamines, cocaine, steroids, and other substances.” (2012).

[26] Pinkham, Sophie. “Speeding up the response: A global review of the harm reduction response to amphetamines.” Harm Reduction International: The Global State of Harm Reduction (2011): 97-104.

[27] Rigoni, R., Joost Breeksema, and Sara Woods. “Speed limits: harm reduction for people who use stimulants.” (2018).

[28] Grund, Jean-Paul, Philip Coffin, Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Minke Dijkstra, Dick De Bruin, and Peter Blanken. “The fast and furious—cocaine, amphetamines, and harm reduction.” Monographs (2010): 191.

[29] Maher, L., P. Phlong, Julie Mooney-Somers, S. Keo, E. Stein, M. C. Couture, and K. Page. “Amphetamine-type stimulant use and HIV/STI risk behavior among young female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.” International Journal of Drug Policy 22, no. 3 (2011): 203-209.

[30] Denning, Patt, and Jeannie Little. Practicing harm reduction psychotherapy: An alternative approach to addictions. Guilford Press, 2011.

[31]Blickman, Tom. “Amphetamine type stimulants and harm reduction.” Amsterdam, Netherlands: Transnational Institute (TNI) (2011).

[32] Radfar, Seyed Ramin, and Richard A. Rawson. “Current research on methamphetamine: epidemiology, medical and psychiatric effects, treatment, and harm reduction efforts.” Addiction & health 6, no. 3-4 (2014): 146.

[33] Hartnoll, Richard, Anna Gyarmathy, and Tomas Zabransky. “Variations in problem drug use patterns and their implications for harm reduction.” MONOGRAPHS (2010): 405.

[34] Stockings, Emily, Wayne D. Hall, Michael Lynskey, Katherine I. Morley, Nicola Reavley, John Strang, George Patton, and Louisa Degenhardt. “Prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of substance use in young people.” The Lancet Psychiatry 3, no. 3 (2016): 280-296.

[35]. Fletcher, Adam, Amador Calafat, Alessandro Pirona, and Deborah Olszewski. “Young people, recreational drug use, and harm reduction.” (2010): 357-378.

[36] Mullen, Jeff M., and Adam T. Crawford. “Amphetamine Related Psychiatric Disorders.” In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing, 2019.

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