|Hazard||Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL)s|
|Manganese Fume||0.1667 mg/m3||5 mg/m3 (Ceiling)||0.1 mg/m3 8-hour TWA (I)|
|Copper Fume||0.1458 mg/m3||0.1 mg/m3 (8-hour TWA)||0.2 mg/m3 (8-hour TWA)|
|Lead Fume||0.0417 mg/m3||0.05 mg/m3 (OSHA 8-hour TWA)||0.05 mg/m3 (8-hour TWA)|
|1,2,4 trimethylbenzene||0.021 ppm||None Established||25 ppm (8-hour TWA TLV)|
|Toluene||0.691 ppm||200 ppm (8-hour TWA)||20 ppm (8-hour TWA TLV)|
|Xylene||0.010 ppm||100 ppm (8-hour TWA)||100 ppm (8-hour TWA)|
|Metal Working Fluids||0.6944 mg/m 3||None Established||0.5 mg/m3 (NIOSH 10-hour TWA REL)|
Based on the calculated values and the occupational exposure values (OELs) from OSHA, NIOSH, and ACGIH, it is evident that there exist slight differences, similarities, and huge differences in some values. Thus, it is crucial to consider all the standardized values provided by the three bodies in determining the level of exposure (Fuller, 2015). However, a combination of the three standard agencies would help in ensuring that employees remain safe when working in the company.
From the analysis, employees exposure to vapors, that is, 1,2,4 Trimethylbenzene, Toluene, and Xylene, were all within the standards established by OSHA and ACGIH. In this regard, the vapors do not pose any threat to the health of employees working in the company (Fuller, 2015). However, some aerosols were within the acceptable limit while others prove dangerous. For instance, lead fumes (0.042 mg/m3) are lower than the limits set by both OSHA and ACGIH, which are both equal at 0.05 mg/m3. However, Manganese fumes exceed the ACGIH limit of 0.1mg/m3 since it is at 0.167 mg/m3, which makes it unacceptable. In addition, copper fumes exceed the OSHA limit of 0.1 mg/m3 since it is at 0.146 mg/m3, which is unacceptable. Similarly, the metal working fluids exceed the limits set by NIOSH of 0.5 mg/m3, as the sampled area recorded a 0.694 mg/m3, which is unacceptable.
|Location||Shift Length||Result||Percentage Exposure|
|Shipping/Receiving||8 hours||78.3 dBA (Lavg)||20%|
|Hydraulic Press||12 hours||93.0 dBA (Lavg)||2.3%|
|Metal Working Line||12 hours||84 dBA (Lavg)||0.6%|
|Robotic Welding||12 hours||80.5 dBA (Lavg)||0.4%|
|Hand Welding||12 hours||81.3 dBA (Lavg)||0.4%|
|Paint Booth||12 hours||79.5 dBA (Lavg)||0.3%|
|QA/QC Laboratory||8 hours||70.0 dBA (Lavg)||6%|
|Final Inspection||8 hours||73.5 dBA (Lavg)||10%|
Based on the current calculations, the only area that exceeded the OSHA PEL limits is the hydraulic pressing area. According to OSHA (2019), the PEL for hydraulic pressing is 90 dBA for an 8-hour shift. However, the calculated value was 93 dBA, which for a 12-hour shift.
Unfortunately, the only area that exceeds the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL), which is 90 dBA for an 8-Hour Shift, is the Hydraulic Pressing area with a noise level at 93 dBA for 12-Hour Shift. It also exceeds the OSHA Action level after utilizing OSHA action level of 5 dBA. At a 93 dBA, the workers are only allowed to work for 5-hours only. Therefore, the risk of hearing loss is great in the hydraulic pressing area. Thus, it is crucial to use the recommended hearing conservation techniques to ensure compliance with the industry standards (Waters et al., 2015). In other areas, the company has complied with the relevant recommended practices and the noise levels lies within the standard levels established by OSHA action levels and OSHA PEL.
Occupational Safety and Health Adminstration. (2017). Permissible exposure limits – annotated tables. United States Department of Labor. Retrieved April 27, 2021, from https://www.osha.gov/annotated-pels/table-z-1
Waters, M., McKernan, L., Maier, A., Jayjock, M., Schaeffer, V., & Brosseau, L. (2015). Exposure Estimation and Interpretation of Occupational Risk: Enhanced Information for the Occupational Risk Manager. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 12(1), S99–S111. https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2015.1084421
Fuller, T. P. (2015). Essentials of industrial hygiene. Itasca, IL: National Safety Council.