A Longitudinal Analysis of Intergenerational Transmission of Violence and Criminal Behavior

Besemer, S., Ahmad, S. I., Hinshaw, S. P., & Farrington, D. P. (2017). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the intergenerational transmission of criminal behavior. Aggression and Violent Behavior37, 161-178.

According to the intergenerational transmission theory, descendants of violent offenders are likely to be involved in crime because of the transfer of personal abilities, traits, and behaviors to the subsequent generations. Importantly, children adopt their parents’ behaviors due to their initial interactions during their growth and development stage.  Studying the impact of intergenerational transmission of violence and criminal behavior is essential to the development of viable solutions that address ideological differences, which contribute to the adverse outcomes witnessed in the modern community.

Valgardson, B. A., & Schwartz, J. A. (2019). An examination of within-and between-family influences on the intergenerational transmission of violence and maltreatment. Journal of contemporary criminal justice35(1), 87-102.

By integrating the transmission model with other theoretical concepts such as social learning, official bias, and genetics, it becomes easier to comprehend the impact of intergenerational transmission of violence on different households in affected communities. When evaluating the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, one encounters the desire to identify the impact of education, exposure to risk behavior, and household structure on the future expectations of adolescents.

Van de Weijer, S., De Jong, R., Bijleveld, C., Blokland, A., & Raine, A. (2017). The role of heart rate levels in the intergenerational transmission of crime. Societies7(3), 23.

Aspects such as the occupation of parents, health status, and social and demographic factors play an important role in shaping the thought process of young people. Many scholars have established the role of the socialization process of individuals on their behavior. For instance, a child who is born in a violent household is likely to demonstrate similar character traits during their adult stage because of the strong parental influence on their perspectives towards life.

Farrington, D. P., Ttofi, M. M., & Crago, R. V. (2017). Intergenerational transmission of convictions for different types of offenses. Victims & Offenders12(1), 1-20.

There is a high impact of mental health and violence on the nature of relationships people from violent backgrounds have with other individuals. Addressing the impact of health-related outcomes on the behavior development of young people enables different stakeholders to create an enabling environment that supports a smooth transition of young people into their adult life. From this realization, parents should create an enabling environment where children can interact with different facets of life and overcome aspects that mold their characters to desist from engaging in violent and criminal activities.

Tracy, M., Salo, M., & Appleton, A. A. (2018). The mitigating effects of maternal social support and paternal involvement on the intergenerational transmission of violence. Child abuse & neglect78, 46-59.

In line with the arguments raised in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, studies should focus on demonstrating how behavior and exposure to different environments affect health outcomes. When evaluating health-related outcomes such as diet, use of contraceptives, and disclosure to Sexually Transmitted Infections, scholars should highlight the influence of causal behavior on adolescents. For example, STIs and teenage pregnancies are prevalent in adolescents from Black and Latino backgrounds than in the white-dominated communities.

Besemer, S., Farrington, D. P., & Bijleveld, C. C. (2017). Labeling and intergenerational transmission of crime: The interaction between criminal justice intervention and a convicted parent. PloS one12(3), e0172419.

Health-related outcomes influence the causation behavior of adolescents and shape their perspectives towards life when interacting with people in their immediate environment. Addressing social problems such as early pregnancies, suicide thoughts, and violence tendencies among young people from affected population groups presents an opportunity for individuals to resolve the problems caused by intergenerational transmission of violent and criminal behavior in the community.

Branje, S., Geeraerts, S., de Zeeuw, E. L., Oerlemans, A. M., Koopman-Verhoeff, M. E., Schulz, S., … & Oldehinkel, A. J. (2020). Intergenerational transmission: Theoretical and methodological issues and an introduction to four Dutch cohorts. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 100835.

The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health proposes the use of a health data set that enables individuals to understand the influence of behavior and development contexts on individuals during their adult life. In this case, the transmission of behavior, traits, and characteristics is influenced by complex genetic and non-genetic factors. This study proposes the adoption of a longitudinal cohort approach that examine the impact of the genetic and non-genetic factors on subsequent generations.

Zhao, Q., Cepeda, A., Chou, C. P., & Valdez, A. (2020). Maternal Incarceration Trajectories and the Intergenerational Transmission of Imprisonment: A Nationwide Study. Children and Youth Services Review, 105461.

In this study, the scholars rely on the longitudinal approach to establish the impact of maternal incarceration on the children’s probability of imprisonment. A mother’s sexual incarceration encounters influence the possibility of intergenerational transmission of imprisonment in the modern world. However, various inconsistencies that emerge during the transfer of the character traits and behavior changes compel the scholars to use incarceration trajectories to formulate credible outcomes that shape the perspectives of individuals towards the intergenerational transmission of imprisonment.

van de Weijer, S., Augustyn, M. B., & Besemer, S. (2017). Intergenerational transmission of crime. The Routledge international handbook of life-course criminology, 279-297.

The scholars in this research establish that previous accounts on intergeneration transmission of crime were focused on the behavior of individuals in one country. Given their ability to ignore the diversity of other cultural groups around the world, the studies may have missed to explore the inconsistencies that occur during the study of the factors that influence the transmission of crime across generations. Hence, the study establishes that the link between parental crime and child crime is strongly influenced by the timing of the offence committed by the parent.

Safranoff, A., & Tiravassi, A. (2018). The Intergenerational Transmission of Violence: Testimonials from Prison. Technical Note No. IDB-TN-1410. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.

This article enables individuals to understand the relationship between child victimization and the emergence of criminal behavior during the adult stages of life. Importantly, women who grew up in a family household where the father demonstrated violent behavior are likely to embrace criminal behavior in their later stages. However, as a direct victim of abuse, men tend to possess firearms to protect themselves in their gown phase. Therefore, intervention strategies should vary across men and women because of the impact of violent experiences on their life.

Latecka, E. (2019). Intergenerational transmission of violence: Is violence a pathology of intersubjective contact? South African Journal of Philosophy38(2), 189-202.

In this study, violence is viewed as a pathological inter-subject that is influenced by a lack of recognition in the community. The scholar uses the Honneth’s concept of struggle for recognition and Merleau-Ponty’s account of intersubjectivity to establish the relationship between intergenerational transmission of violence and its impact on people’s perspectives. Given the negative effects of misrecognition on people’s perspectives, the author identifies the varied understanding of intersubjective contacts on people’s lifestyles.

Giordano, P. C., Copp, J. E., Manning, W. D., & Longmore, M. A. (2019). Linking parental incarceration and family dynamics associated with intergenerational transmission: A life‐course perspective. Criminology57(3), 395-423.

Children born by incarcerated parents encounter a wide range of disadvantages that influence their perspectives towards life. Even though researchers have majored on these disadvantages as control to compare what would have happened if the children were born in normal families, many studies fail to recognize the existence of inconsistencies. Identifying the relationship between crime and incarceration exposes one to an environment where they can overcome challenges affecting the lifestyles of individuals in their immediate environment.

Pinna, K. L. (2016). Interrupting the intergenerational transmission of violence. Child abuse review25(2), 145-157.

Children who have been exposed to violence experience emotional and behavioral disorders in their later stages of life. Many studies have indicated the recurrence of domestic violence across generations because of an early exposure to the violent behaviors. Parental warmth and positive attributions exposed individuals to minimal disruptive behaviors because of their understanding on the best approaches that should be used to resolve violence.

Zimmerman, G. M., Tucker, R., & Stowell, J. I. (2019). Neighborhood through a familial lens: Examining the intergenerational transmission of collective efficacy. Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology5(4), 498-516.

Even though many research articles have dwelled on demonstrating the factors affecting intergenerational transmission of collective efficacy, only a few have addressed the influence of family members on the perspectives of other people towards violence. In this regard, the impact of neighborhood and parents’ perceptions of efficacy contribute towards the realization of different measures that should be adopted in the contemporary world.

Shakoor, S., Theobald, D., & Farrington, D. P. (2020). Intergenerational continuity of intimate partner violence perpetration: an investigation of possible mechanisms. Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260520959629.

Intimate partner violence presents an opportunity for individuals to understand the influence of romantic partners on the perspectives of individuals towards violence. Daughters born by parents who experience intimate partner violence are more likely to be perpetrators of crime than their male counterparts. Using this approach enables individuals to embrace the recommended interventions strategies to overcome the intergenerational continuity of violence.

 

 

References

Besemer, S., Ahmad, S. I., Hinshaw, S. P., & Farrington, D. P. (2017). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the intergenerational transmission of criminal behavior. Aggression and Violent Behavior37, 161-178.

Besemer, S., Farrington, D. P., & Bijleveld, C. C. (2017). Labeling and intergenerational transmission of crime: The interaction between criminal justice intervention and a convicted parent. PloS one12(3), e0172419.

Branje, S., Geeraerts, S., de Zeeuw, E. L., Oerlemans, A. M., Koopman-Verhoeff, M. E., Schulz, S., … & Oldehinkel, A. J. (2020). Intergenerational transmission: Theoretical and methodological issues and an introduction to four Dutch cohorts. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 100835.

Farrington, D. P., Ttofi, M. M., & Crago, R. V. (2017). Intergenerational transmission of convictions for different types of offenses. Victims & Offenders12(1), 1-20.

Giordano, P. C., Copp, J. E., Manning, W. D., & Longmore, M. A. (2019). Linking parental incarceration and family dynamics associated with intergenerational transmission: A life‐course perspective. Criminology57(3), 395-423.

Latecka, E. (2019). Intergenerational transmission of violence: Is violence a pathology of intersubjective contact? South African Journal of Philosophy38(2), 189-202.

Pinna, K. L. (2016). Interrupting the intergenerational transmission of violence. Child abuse review25(2), 145-157.

Safranoff, A., & Tiravassi, A. (2018). The Intergenerational Transmission of Violence: Testimonials from Prison. Technical Note No. IDB-TN-1410. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.

Shakoor, S., Theobald, D., & Farrington, D. P. (2020). Intergenerational continuity of intimate partner violence perpetration: an investigation of possible mechanisms. Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260520959629.

Tracy, M., Salo, M., & Appleton, A. A. (2018). The mitigating effects of maternal social support and paternal involvement on the intergenerational transmission of violence. Child abuse & neglect78, 46-59.

Valgardson, B. A., & Schwartz, J. A. (2019). An examination of within-and between-family influences on the intergenerational transmission of violence and maltreatment. Journal of contemporary criminal justice35(1), 87-102.

van de Weijer, S., Augustyn, M. B., & Besemer, S. (2017). Intergenerational transmission of crime. The Routledge international handbook of life-course criminology, 279-297.

Van de Weijer, S., De Jong, R., Bijleveld, C., Blokland, A., & Raine, A. (2017). The role of heart rate levels in the intergenerational transmission of crime. Societies7(3), 23.

Zhao, Q., Cepeda, A., Chou, C. P., & Valdez, A. (2020). Maternal Incarceration Trajectories and the Intergenerational Transmission of Imprisonment: A Nationwide Study. Children and Youth Services Review, 105461.

Zimmerman, G. M., Tucker, R., & Stowell, J. I. (2019). Neighborhood through a familial lens: Examining the intergenerational transmission of collective efficacy. Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology5(4), 498-516.

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